Malta Jails Ethiopian Refugees abuse their Human Rights and convection of UNHCR

 

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Petitioning Ethiopian People Patriotic Front

This petition will be delivered to:

President of The Republic of Malta – Dr. George Abella
Ethiopian People Patriotic Front
UNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Case Postale 2500 CH-1211 Genève 2 Dépôt Suisse.
Human Rights Watch 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th Floor New York, NY 10118-3299 USA
Human Rights Watch

President of the republic of Malta – Dr. George Abella: Liberate Ethiopian Refugees From Prison

Prof Muse TegegneEthiopians refugees are held as a Prisoner in Malta. We as the rights to be respect and liberated and given political asylum after crossing Sudan Lybia and mediteranian see for freedom.

To:
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Case Postale 2500 CH-1211 Genève 2 Dépôt Suisse. (UNHCR)
Human Rights Watch (Human Rights Watch 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th Floor New York, NY 10118-3299 USA)
Office of the President (President of The Republic of Malta – Dr. George Abella)
Sac Sport Complex 50 (Jesuit Refugee Service Malta)
Liberate Ethiopian Refugees From Prison in Malta five them political asylum or facilitate their transfer to third country of refuge …

Sincerely,
[Your name]

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The Ethiopian Dictator sold Ethiopian Teff Genetic Resources for nothing…

How Ethiopia Lost Control of Its Teff Genetic Resources

Photo: Marit Fikke / Development Fund(12.11.2012) In 2005, Ethiopia concluded an agreement with the Dutch company HPFI, sharing itsteff genetic resources in return for a part of the benefits that would be achieved from developingteff products for the European market.

In the end, Ethiopia received practically no benefits. Instead, due to a broad patent and a questionable bankruptcy, it lost its right to utilize and reap benefits from its own teff genetic resources in the countries where the patent is valid.

The amazing story of the Teff Agreement has been uncovered and meticulously documented in a recent FNI report by FNI researchers Regine Andersen and Tone Winge.

Teff is a food grain endemic to the Ethiopian highlands, where it has been cultivated for several thousand years. Rich in nutritional value, it is an important staple crop for Ethiopians. Since it is gluten-free, it is also interesting for markets in other parts of the world.

A 2005 agreement between Ethiopia and the Dutch company HPFI gave HPFI access to 12 Ethiopian teff varieties, which it was to use for developing newteff-based products for the European market. In return, the company was to share substantial benefits with Ethiopia.

The Teff Agreement was hailed as one of the most advanced of its time. It was seen as a pilot case for the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in terms of access to and benefit-sharing from the use of genetic resources (ABS).

But the high expectations were never met: The only benefits Ethiopia ever received were 4000 Euro and a small, early interrupted research project.

And then, in 2009, the company went bankrupt. In the years prior to bankruptcy, however, HPFI managed to obtain a broad patent on the processing of teff flour in Europe, covering ripe grain, as well as fine flour, dough, batter and non-traditional teff products. This patent, along with other values of the company, had then been transferred to new companies set up by the same owners.

These companies now possess the exclusive rights to a large range of teff-based products. But as it was the now bankrupt HPFI that was Ethiopia’s contract partner, these new companies are not bound by the contractual obligations of HPFI towards Ethiopia.

Ethiopia thus ended up receiving practically none of the benefits promised under the agreement, and its future opportunities to profit from teff in international markets were smaller than before.


How was this possible? 


This is what FNI researchers Regine Andersen andTone Winge have been looking into in their new reportThe Access and Benefit-Sharing Agreement on Teff Genetic Resources: Facts and Lessons, published by FNI today.

Their report has been written as part of FNI’s contribution to the German-led ABS Capacity Development Initiative, focusing on mainly African experiences with access to and benefit-sharing from the use of their genetic resources.

Lessons to be learned

Through their in-depth analysis of the course of events with regard to the Teff Agreement and the related patent on the processing of teff flour, Andersen and Winge attempt to extract lessons to ensure that future access and benefit-sharing agreements will have better prospects of success. They also provide recommendations for the implementation of the CBD. Some of the main conclusions can be summarized as follows:

   Under the current circumstances, even the very best ABS agreement is without value if there is no willingness to comply with it: As long as there are no measures in place in the user-countries (in the teff case: The Netherlands) such agreements can be seen as gentlemen’s agreements, requiring a basis of good faith.

   Provider countries (in the teff case: Ethiopia) need institutional and financial support to enable them to monitor ABS agreements, and to facilitate real access to justice in the user countries. A multilateral instrument for this purpose under the CBD combined with user-country legislation is probably the most realistic possibility to realize the objectives on fair and equitable benefit-sharing of the CBD and its Nagoya Protocol.

   Formulations in ABS agreements prohibiting the patenting of genetic resources may be easy to circumvent, and more sophisticated formulations should be chosen if this is to be avoided.

Eragrostis tef (Teff) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
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Mobile University ፍኖት “Order Paradigm”, Social Darwinism & Eugenics አማረኛ

Francis Galton, the English eugenicist who wro...

Francis Galton, the English eugenicist who wrote extensively on the relation between intelligence and social class (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

A course of Sociology of Paradigm 101 in Amharic and some English terms definitions.

Herbert Spencer, a 19th century philosopher, promoted the idea of Social Darwinism. Social Darwinism is an application of the theory of natural selection to social, political, and economic issues. In its simplest form, Social Darwinism follows the mantra of “the strong survive,” including human issues. This theory was used to promote the idea that the white European race was superior to others, and therefore, destined

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 - 8 December 19...

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher. http://web4.si.edu/sil/scientific-identity/display_results.cfm?alpha_sort=W http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Herbert_Spencer.jpg (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

to rule over them.

A constellation Assumption that make scientific investigation. ለሳይንስ ምረምር የሚጠቅሙና የተጠራቀሙ መላ-ምቶች ፍኖት ወይም ፓራዳይም ይባላሉ።
Paradiegmia – In Greek Means -Pattern or Example .Thought pattern, Subconscious conditioning . A paradigm is just a common belief in a theory, A constellation Assumption that make scientific investigation. ለሳይንስ ምረምር የሚጠቅሙና የተጠራቀሙ መላ-ምቶች ፍኖት ወይም ፓራዳይም ይባላሉ።

Paradiegmia – In Greek Means -Pattern or Example
Thought pattern, Subconscious conditioning
a paradigm is just a common belief in a theory
and its principles and its principles. ፓራዳይም/ፍኖት በሕልዎ ሕግጋት የተለመደ እምነት ነው ።

Eugenics: A pseudoscience with the stated aim of improving the genetic constitution of the human species by selective breeding. Eugenics is from a Greek word meaning ‘normal genes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Nile, Egypt’s lifeline in the desert, comes under threat by damming on its sources by East African Dictators

By Jeffrey Fleishman, Los Angeles Times

original title

The Nile, Egypt’s lifeline in the desert, comes under threat

November 11, 2012

Poor African capitals are increasingly challenging Cairo for the river’s water, without which Egypt’s economy would wither and die.

Nile River's future is the future of EgyptEgyptians sit near the Nile River at sunset in Cairo. Neighboring African countries at the river’s source, notably Ethiopia, no longer feel bound by colonial-era agreements and are moving to siphon away larger shares of water for electricity, irrigation and business to meet demands of burgeoning populations. (John Moore / Getty Images / February 5, 2011)

CAIRO — Overwhelmed by cascading economic and political problems since the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak, this nation teeters from within even as it biggest threat may lie hundreds of miles away in the African highlands. Buried in the headlines is the future of the Nile River — and thus the fate ofEgypt itself.

Mubarak long neglected the security danger posed by other nations’ claims to the timeless pulse that provides 95% of this desert country’s water, without which its delta farmlands would wither and its economy die. As poor African capitals increasingly challenge Cairo, however, the struggle has become one of the most pressing foreign policy tests for Egypt’s new president, Mohamed Morsi.

African countries at the river’s source, notably Ethiopia, no longer feel bound by colonial-era agreements on water rights and are moving to siphon away larger shares of water for electricity, irrigation and business to meet demands of burgeoning populations.

It is a skirmish involving diplomats, engineers and veiled threats of war over geography’s blessings and slights and how nations in a new century will divvy up a river on whose banks civilizations have risen and tumbled.

“All of Egyptian life is based on the Nile. Without it there is nothing,” said Moujahed Achouri, the representative for theUnited Nations‘ Food and Agricultural Organization in Egypt.

Morsi’s acknowledgment of the water crisis and his desire to reach a compromise to protect his country’s strategic and historical claim is evident: The Islamist leader has visited key Nile countries twice since his inauguration in June, and his prime minister, Hesham Kandil, is a former water and irrigation minister with connections to officials in African governments. An Egyptian delegation recently toured the region, listening to how Cairo might help build hospitals and schools in villages and jungles.

An advisor to the president quoted in Al Ahram Weekly said this of Morsi: “The man was shocked when he received a review about the state of ties we have with Nile basin countries. The previous regime should be tried for overlooking such a strategic interest.”

For decades, Egypt had concentrated on problems closer to home, including keeping the Arab-Israeli peace and tending to wars from Lebanon to Iraq. Mubarak, who survived a 1995 assassination attempt by Islamic extremists in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa, had paid little attention to East Africa. But his regime was adamant — at one point hinting at military action — in preserving the existing Nile treaties.

That echoed a warning from his predecessor, President Anwar Sadat, in 1979: “The only matter that could take Egypt to war again is water.”

In a 1929 treaty and through other pacts, Egypt and its southern neighbor, Sudan, were granted the bulk of the Nile’s flow. The logic — filtered through decades of politics and power struggles — was that Egypt could not survive without the river. Nile basin countries, including Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania, have seasonal rains and other water sources.

But economic pressure and increasing demand for energy and development have turned African countries’ attention to the Nile. Since 2010, Ethiopia, which now gets only 3% of its water from the Nile, and five other upstream countries have indicated they would divert more water and no longer honor Egypt’s veto power over building projects on the river.

The biggest challenge to Cairo is the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam. Experts estimate that the hydropower project, which is under construction and is expected to cost at least $4.8 billion, could reduce the river’s flow to Egypt by as much as 25% during the three years it would take to fill the reservoir behind the dam. The project faces a number of potential setbacks and lost its biggest proponent when Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi died in August.

Ethiopia has sought to reassure Cairo that Egypt’s annual share of 55.5 billion cubic meters of Nile water — about two-thirds of the river’s flow — will not be disrupted and that the new dam may provide low-cost electricity to its neighbors. But the Egyptians are suspicious.

“Egypt has entered a stage where its resources are depleting and population is rapidly increasing,” said Hani Raslan, an expert on the Nile basin for Al Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies in Cairo. “If the dam is complete … this will mean Ethiopia will turn into an enemy for Egypt because it will essentially threaten the country’s safety, development and livelihood of its people.”

He added, “Egypt would legally have the right to defend itself by going to war.”

The struggle over the river highlights decades of strained relations. Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni was quoted as saying before Morsi’s visit in October: “Despite the Nile River supporting livelihoods of millions of Egyptians from the ancient times to date, none of the country’s presidents has ever visited Uganda to see the source of this lifeline.”

Egypt and the other Nile nations are seeking to calm the rhetoric.

Officials say a resolution may include Cairo entering into long-term economic and energy resource agreements with neighboring capitals. The Egyptian delegation that recently toured the region included doctors and representatives of food banks, hospitals and charities.

Egypt, however, faces deep economic problems and is trying to attract foreign investment, which dropped sharply during last year’s uprising and ensuing political unrest.

“Morsi is trying to send signals to the African world that Egypt is opening up now, that he wants to improve relations and increase cooperation,” Raslan said. Morsi’s visits to Africa “are all just gestures.”

“No real agreements have been reached yet,” he said. “More needs to be done. Egypt wants and needs to reach its influence in the region.”

The essence of the Nile conflict is poor nations — Egypt and Ethiopia — needing the river for similar reasons. Ethiopia, which has experienced strong economic growth in recent years, wants to boost electricity output while spurring agriculture and development. Those needs also resonate to the north, but Egypt, which has no other water source, faces more dire prospects.

The crisis is certain to force Egypt, where regulations are tangled in bureaucracy and often ignored, to improve water conservation among the nearly 30% of its population that depends on farming for its livelihood. Much of the Nile Delta is made up of small family farms that for centuries have grown wheat, corn and rice with little environmental concern. This attitude and a growing population, which may jump from 82 million to 150 million by 2050, have put further strains on the river.

“Water policies in Egypt have to be long-range,” said Achouri, the U.N. official. “If you want farmers to stop using too much water for irrigation, alternatives and other incentives should be made available to them. Farmers right now cannot make a living without the Nile.”

A possible solution is rotating away from water-intensive crops, such as rice, and shifting to increased wheat production. Egypt, where the word “bread” also means “life,” is the world’s No. 1 importer of wheat. Agricultural experts say reducing rice production while increasing wheat yields would conserve water and meet the country’s food needs.

Such a scenario may be forced upon farmers if the Nile’s flow is curtailed and irrigation canals become parched. Egypt’s water and irrigation minister, Mohamed Bahaa El Din Saad, said recently that overpopulation, farming and other water uses have left the country with a “water deficit” of billions of gallons.

“More than 90% of the water for Egypt’s 90 million people is coming in from the Nile,” Achouri said. “The only way out is for more efficient use.”

Ethiopianism A Paradigm Shift for Change November 2012

Doom

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የቀድመዋ እመቤት ጋሻ አነሱ!  ታደለ መኩረያ

 

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