Mosquitoes “disappearing” in certain parts of tropics and “appearing” in an usual parts of the earth ?


The New era mosquitoes are manifesting in areas they are not used to be seen before. Like this summer in Thailand seems most of the mosquitoes disappear almost in Bangkok. Many attributes to the climate change .

 

We invite you to read the following articles to make your judgments and give us your experiences in your region .

 

Prof. Muse Tegegne


Mosquitoes ‘disappearing’ in some parts of Africa

By Matt McGrathScience reporter, BBC World Service

A mosquito feedingMosquitoes are now a rare sight in some parts of Africa

Malaria-carrying mosquitoes are disappearing in some parts of Africa, but scientists are unsure as to why.

Figures indicate controls such as anti-mosquito bed nets are having a significant impact on the incidence of malaria in some sub-Saharan countries.

But in Malaria Journal, researchers say mosquitoes are also disappearing from areas with few controls.

They are uncertain if mosquitoes are being eradicated or whether they will return with renewed vigour.

Data from countries such as Tanzania, Eritrea, Rwanda, Kenya and Zambia all indicate that the incidence of malaria is dropping fast.

Researchers believe this is due to effective implementation of control programmes, especially the deployment of bed nets treated with insecticide.

But a team of Danish and Tanzanian scientists say this is not the whole story. For more than 10 years they have been collecting and counting the number of mosquitoes caught in thousands of traps in Tanzania.

In 2004 they caught over 5,000 insects. In 2009 that had dropped to just 14.

More importantly, these collections took place in villages that weren’t using bed nets.

‘Chaotic rainfall’

One possibility for the reduction in numbers is climate change. Patterns of rainfall in these years were more chaotic in these regions of Tanzania and often fell outside the rainy season. The scientists say this may have disturbed the natural cycle of mosquito development.

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It is most likely we will have an epidemic of malaria ”

Professor Dan Meyrowitsch,University of Copenhagen

But the lead author of the study, Professor Dan Meyrowitsch from the University of Copenhagen, says that he is not convinced that it is just the changing climate.

“It could be partly due to this chaotic rainfall, but personally I don’t think it can explain such a dramatic decline in mosquitoes, to the extent we can say that the malaria mosquitoes are almost eradicated in these communities.

“What we should consider is that there may be a disease among the mosquitoes, a fungi or a virus, or they’re may have been some environmental changes in the communities that have resulted in a drop in the number of mosquitoes”

The research team also found anecdotal evidence that their discovery was not an isolated case.

Prof Meyrowitsch added: “Other scientists are saying they can’t test their drugs because there are no children left with malaria.

“They observed this in communities with no large interventions against malaria or mosquitoes. It may be the same scenario that the specific mosquitoes that carry malaria are declining very fast now”

The researchers are unsure if mosquitoes will return to these regions. If they do, one particular cause for concern is the young people who have not been exposed to malaria over the past five or six years since the mosquitoes began to decline.

“If the mosquito population starts coming up again” says Professor Meyrowitsch “and my own assumption is that it will, it is most likely we will have an epidemic of malaria with a higher level of disease and mortality especially amongst these children who have not been exposed.”


Is the mosquito menace growing in the UK?
Virginia Brown


Mosquito sucking blood

Complaints of mosquito bites are on the rise in the UK. So should Britons brace themselves for a future mosquito menace?

Hovering perfectly at ear level with a lingering, bothersome whine, mosquitoes leave you with bites that lead to itchy, swollen welts.

In much of the world, affected by malaria, repelling them is a matter of life and death. In the UK they are a mere annoyance, interrupting summer holidays and barbecues.

Based on a survey of UK local authorities, reports of mosquito bites over the last 10 years are 2.5 times greater than in the 10 years up to 1996.

NHS Direct statistics show 9,061 calls in England complaining of bites and stings from early May this year to now – up nearly 15% from last summer. Not all bite complaints are due to mosquitoes – many can be attributed to bedbugs, midges and fleas.

But conditions in the UK, particularly in southeastern England, are increasingly hospitable to mosquitoes.

“The wet weather through May and June this year, along with a warm summer, has affected the population because mosquitoes like the standing breeding water,” says zoologist Michael Bonsall at Oxford University.

It’s difficult to track mosquito numbers accurately, but the UK authorities are trying to do so.

Mosquito snapshot

  • Culex pipiens is the most common mosquito in Britain
  • Only females bite humans, males feed off nectar
  • Bites often occur at dawn and dusk, when mosquitoes’ internal clocks tell them it’s feeding time
  • A quarter of British species do not bite humans but feed on animals and birds
  • Anopheles mosquitoes are the only known carriers of malaria
  • Red bumps and itching caused by bites is an allergic reaction to the mosquito’s saliva

The Health Protection Agency has organised the Mosquito Recording Scheme to look into where and how mosquitoes live and breed.

And the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, with help from the HPA, has created Mosquito Watch, a voluntary reporting system geared towards collecting and analysing various specimens.

Not only do mosquitoes swarm over pools of standing water, including bowls left outside for pets, they appear under man-hole covers and even travel on London’s Tube network.

But while mosquitoes transmit deadly diseases in many parts of the world, they do not cause major harm in the UK.

They may spoil picnics in the park, but they are usually only a major problem when Britons travel to countries with malaria, dengue or other mosquito-borne diseases.

But once upon a time, malaria-carrying mosquitoes could be found in the salt marshes of southeastern England.

It is believed that malaria – literally “bad air” – dates back at least to Roman times in the UK, and outbreaks occurred as recently as the years just following World War I.

British doctor Ronald Ross, who discovered the malarial parasite living in the gastrointestinal tract of the Anopheles mosquito in the 19th Century, recruited teams to eliminate the larvae from stagnant pools and marshes.

Black-and-white striped Asian tiger mosquito bites a humanThe Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has been spotted as close as Belgium

Malaria in England had effectively died out by the 1950s, mostly due to the draining of much of the marshland where mosquitoes bred.

But because of the growth of global travel, the number of imported cases of the disease in the UK has risen, with nearly 2,000 a year today.

In many cases, live mosquitoes have been found on aircraft, or travelling in luggage, having been transported from countries with malaria.

On rare occasions, people may even have contracted malaria in Europe and North America, dubbed “airport malaria”.

Five of the 30-plus species of mosquito found in the UK are not native. One variety is coming alarmingly close to the UK. The Asian tiger mosquito – Aedes albopictus – known for its white and black striped pattern has been spotted as close as Belgium.

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It is possible that Aedes albopictus [Asian tiger mosquito] could make its way to the UK”

Dr James LoganMedical entomologist

While the species does not carry malaria, it does transmit West Nile virus, Yellow fever and dengue.

“It is possible that Aedes albopictus could make its way to the UK,” says Dr James Logan, medical entomologist at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.

“Because they lay their drought-resistant eggs in transportable materials, like used tyres, there is a possibility that they can be transported to a country where they are not normally found.

“Some studies suggest that they could survive the UK winter, however, to date this species has not been found in the UK and the HPA are keeping a watchful eye on it.”

Bonsall agrees and adds that predictive models show how malaria-carrying species could even make their way to areas such as the North Kent marshes, Essex, Norfolk and Suffolk.

Mosquitoes are becoming immune to the insecticides used to treat them – via spray or bed nets, according to a recent study from Senegal. Between 2007 and 2010, insects with a resistance to a popular type of pesticide rose from 8% to 48%.

“This could be a big problem for future control,” says Dr Hilary Ranson, head of the vector group at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

But according to Dr Logan, the health infrastructure and access to drugs in the UK means malaria is unlikely to take hold and cause major problems.

Unlike much of the world, the rise of the mosquito will be a nuisance in the UK rather than a serious threat.


A worst of Famine & Drought of the century in the Horn caused by excessive damming & land grabbing in Ethiopia announces regime change

 

 

The  famine in the Horn of Africa used be blame mainly for the drought caused by the global  climate change ignoring the pricipla culprit the  the dictatorial regime.  In the past the same  has brought regime change in country of  hunger Ethiopia two times,  that of the Negus in 1974 and the Derg  Military Junta in 1991. As the French says there is no two without three, we expecting a regime change in the country since all conditions are meeting as those of the last two experiences    due to the starvation in Wello in 1974 and in Tigre in 1984 which cost the lives of millions in the past. The main culprit for this in human repeated catastrophe this day has been mainly given to the extreme weather conditions demonstrated by hurricanes, floods, droughts all over the globe.

 

The current drought conditions have been caused by successive seasons with very low rainfall due to wanton construction of the dams all over Ethiopia by the dictatorial regime of Melese Zenawie. Over the past decade the Horn of Africa has experienced consecutive failed rainy seasons having direct co-correlation in this period of intensification of damming in the region.  According to surveys of local communities, this is part of a long-term shift as seen in Borana communities in Ethiopia report that whereas droughts were recorded every six to eight years in the past, they now occur every one to two years since the construction of dams in Omo and Shebelle rivers.

Today’s rainfall projections are unclear. Most modeling, as reflected in the IPCC’s last assessment, suggests more rain will fall in the east Africa region as a whole, with an increase in “heavy events” (sudden downpours, so more flood risk). However, some recent studies suggest rainfall will decrease, particularly in the long rains. To reverse the trend the regional governments must stop wanton damming and wasteful irrigation likes that of Sudan and Ethiopia. According to IPCC’s last assessment, suggests more rain will fall in the east Africa region as a whole, with an increase in “heavy events” (sudden downpours, so more flood risk). However, some recent studies suggest rainfall will decrease, particularly in the long rains.

 

Since the construction of  the Mega dams in the Southern Ethiopia  the regional meteorological data supported  the argument by demonstrating the increase of the  annual temperatures from 1960-2006 by 1C in Kenya and 1.3C in Ethiopia, and the frequency of hot days is increasing in both countries in the region of the dams. However, more recent research suggests that rainfall decreased in the rainy seasons of March to June.  When it comes to records and data collections like Europe and America climate change could not   be attributed to the Horn of Africa’s drought, since t the current drought is directly climate change. True, there are now a few cases in which scientists have been able to estimate the extent to which man-made climate change has made a particular extreme weather event more likely, but these exercises require reliable long-term weather data that only exists for Europe and North America – no such studies as yet exist in the case of the current drought.

What about the future? Globally, climate change modeling projects an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events like droughts and floods. In the absence of urgent action to slash global greenhouse gas emissions, temperatures in the region will probably increase by 3C-4C by 2080-99 relative to 1980-99. The combination of higher temperatures and more unpredictable rains is alarming for food production. In a   recent estimate horn of Africa could suffer a decline in the length of the growing period for key crops of up to 20% by the end of the century, with the productivity of beans falling by nearly 50% if the dictatorial regimes continue letting land grabbing and disfranchising the local family hold farmers and pastoralist for the sake of this international speculators.  More over, the dam is prepared for these grabbed lands irrigation for an eventual cash crop cultivation of exportation.

According Nobel prize-winning economist Amartya Sen that drought is caused by lack of rainfall, famine is man-made, and thus famines do not occur in functioning democracies.

 

 

UN body Calls the Ethiopian Megalomaniac to suspend his “Death Dam” of famine & drought Prof. Muse Tegegne

The  World Heritage Committee heard our over  two years old appeal  to  stop the Ethiopian Dictator  and the anti environmentalist  three gorge dam    Chinese financiers to  suspend the death dam called Gebe III; which eventually will eliminate  the Omotic people by  drying the naturally reserved world heritage Lake Turkana. We hopping the same august body will do to stop the other death dam on the Nile River known as “Millennium Dam which eventually dries the Nile and Lake Tana with unpredicted catastrophic result on the population of the region from Blue Nile down to Egypt. The recent famine and drought is the direct consequence of the these death dams :- Gebe I. II, III & that of the dam on the Shebelle river the only live water source for all the inhabitants of Southern Somalia. Wabe-Shebelle Death Dam is located 785 km South-East of Addis. the deadly dam he project has 2238.19 Mm 3 live storage between 580m and 535.41m, with a  power system of  111 m high. This is the main dam responsible for the drought in the Shebelle Juba region of Somalia by controlling the annual floods in a region the annual rain fall is not sufficient. Today from such dam with that of the Om or river dams the region is highly affected by unprecedented drought. The Ethiopian dictator is fully responsible to this in human act of eliminating million of inhabitants in the region. Unless he is stopped immediately he will transform   the whole region into a desert. Lake Turkana in Northern Kenya is the world’s largest desert Lake which would   eventually dry up like that of the Gobi Lake in Asia which has now ceased to exist.   This unique ecosystem has made it an outstanding living open laboratory for the study of plant and animal communities according to World heritage. The Lakes’   rich fossil finds that have allowed reconstructing the history of animal species and mankind over the past 2 million years will cease to exist by the Ethiopian water dictator Melese Zenawie.  Lake Turkana due to its unique properties in 1997 was recognized and protected as a World Heritage Site. It blood line the Omo river the home of Lucy and Ardi also pouring   this  menaced Lake over 90% of its life giving water source. The creation of dams on Omo rivers have recently accelerated the desertification by  causing unprecedented drought which caused the destruction of  over 10 million people in downstream  Kenya and the damming the Shebelle river damaged the Shebelle river farmers of Somalia. This was confirmed by the recent study study commissioned by the African Development Bank that the dam would likely cause a significant drop in the lake’s water level, increase its salinity, and threaten the unique ecosystem for which the lake was recognized as a World Heritage Site in the first place. According to the international waters the Gibe III Dam is being built by an Italian company. ICBC, a Chinese state-owned bank, has approved funding for the project, and China’s export credit agency is financing the transmission lines. The dam would not only have devastating impacts on the Omo River and Lake Turkana, but also on the 500,000 indigenous people who depend on the river and lake for their livelihoods. The  World Heritage Committee, which oversees the protection of World Heritage Sites around the globe, in its  annual meeting heard our cry  and  decided to take action for the protection of Lake Turkana.  The two  culprit  country Ethiopia and China   being two of the 21 members  of the  organization   did stop the august body to take  the following decisive  motions against their proactive corrupting  lobbies   :-

  • It expressed their “utmost concern” about the proposed construction of the Gibe III Dam and urged the Ethiopian government to “immediately halt all construction” on the project.
  • It asked the governments of Kenya and Ethiopia to invite a monitoring mission to review the dam’s impacts on Lake Turkana,
  • It demanded the financial institutions “to put on hold their financial support” until the Committee’s next annual meeting in June

The following are the world Heritage in Ethiopia but still we have a lot of world hertage in my an place in Ehtiopia in the islands of Lake Tana which are not yet explored. Thus Lower Valley of the Omo where the dictator is constructing his mega dams are reserved areas.

Ethiopia

  • Simien National Park
  • Rock-Hewn Churches, Lalibela
  • Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar Region
  • Aksum
  • Lower Valley of the Awash
  • Lower Valley of the Omo
  • Tiya
  • Harar Jugol, the Fortified Historic Town
  • Konso Cultural Landscape

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2rrBHXQAb6k&feature=player_detailpage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIGehMOdlms&feature=player_detailpage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=48NBDKhqNVg&feature=player_detailpage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-21Rbju3Ck&feature=player_detailpage   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q2zkALwmHW8&feature=player_detailpage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDm3JSa9zoY Related

Ethiopia’s rush to build mega dams sparks protests | World news 

UN Body Calls for Suspension of Gibe III Dam to Protect World Heritage