Weather making , Eartquakes and Water spout of 30 May, 2011

 

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Chileans and Ethiopians on Asymmetric environmental consciousness truck on Damming

Chile and Ethiopia plays an asymmetric historical similarity in political development since mid 1970’s. The environmentally suppressed Ethiopians are pacified to accept without opposition the “Nile & Gibe Death Dams”. In contrast the democratic civil society of Chile  that vividly revolted the construction of serious of dams in the Andes valley Ethiopia accepted  docilely.  Chile successfully toppled the dictator Augusto Pinochet and reestablished the democratic state of Chile in 1990. One year after the end of Chilean dictatorial regime the Ethiopian dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam collapsed with the rest of the ex Soviet satellite sates. He was replaced by an irredentist dictatorial ethnic regime of Melese Zenawie. In Latin American Chile is a country where the basis of democracy and economic development is  well established by successfully replacing the military junta lead by generals who toppled the democratically elected government of Salvador Allende.  It was only 1974, after 3000 years that the people of Ethiopia engaged in a people’s revolution that removed the imperial regime of the Negus,  while  Chile was taken over  by a dictatorial regime of Augusto Pinochet. It seems both countries went in different dimension – when Ethiopia goes on the wrong direction Chile seems doing better by going on the right track or vise versa. Now Chile is on the right track while Ethiopia is lamenting in famine and irredentism risking  balkanization.
In sum total Chile seems luckier in her social change than that of Ethiopia.
Thus Chronology of Asymmetric dates between Chile and Ethiopia in social development.

In sum total Chile seems luckier in her social change than that of Ethiopia.

Chronology of Asymmetric dates between Chile and Ethiopia

1974

Ethiopian people toppled the imperial regime of the Negus

Gen. Augusto Pinochet declared himself a president

1990’s

Chile regained its democracy; Pinochet transferred power to a democratically elected president

Ethiopia was taken over by an irredentist dictatorial regime

 

2010’s

Chile

Thousands of Chileans took to the streets of the capital, Santiago, against the planned construction of a hydroelectric dam in Patagonia.

The Chilean dam e protest was mostly peaceful but ended in clashes with police that left several people arrested.

Hydro Aysén project includes Endesa Chile and Colbún-plans to build five power plants in the Chilean Patagonia. Critics say they have a disastrous effect on the environment and the destruction of 6,000 hectares of forest.

Last Friday held a similar protest which brought 30,000 people. In recent weeks there have been demonstrations against the dam almost daily

Ethiopia

The Ethiopian Pinochet Melee Zenawie lunched a Millennium Hydropower plant, the biggest hydropower plant in Africa yet.

The dam, which will be constructed on Nile River some 40Km from the Sudanese boarder, is expected to be completed in four years time. The Grand Millennium Dam will be the largest artificial lake with a capacity of holding 63 billion cubic meter of water, twice the size of the largest natural lake in the country – Lake Tana. By the time the death dam will be filled with water the Nile will not be following to down river basin countries like Sudan and Egypt. Egypt depends solely for her water from the Nile waters. Such drastic move will drain the Lake Tana   the artificial lake and dry the Nile definitively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chileans  Dam Protest

 

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Protest against new hydroelectric dams in Chile

A controversial $3.2 billion hydroelectric project billed as key to satisfying Chile’s growing energy needs but potentially an environmental 

by AFP | 2 weeks ago | 142 views

Protest Against Dam at Chilean Embassy

 

Chilean People Protest Against the Building of a Dam in Southern Chile.

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Ethiopian Dam Support

 

Ethiopian Artists in Support of Abbay Dam – Part 1

Ethiopian Artists in Support of Abbay Dam – Part 2

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Earthquakes and Solar Wind of 28 & 29 May 2011

Ethiopia on the 20th anniversary of Irredentism, War & Famine is ready to balkanize in model of Somalia and Yugoslavia, Muse Tegegne, Prof.

Ethiopia inaugurates the 20th year of Ethnical irredentism balkanizing  of the unitary  state as existed for over 3000 years. This dictatorial regime of Melese Zenawie came to power at the demise of the satellite regime of Mengistu Haile Marian two years after  the fall the iron curtain in  19191. Melse acessed  power by  manipulating  famine aide  to buy arms at the expense of millions starving in the region of Tigre and the rest of Ethiopia.

The recent “day of rage” counter demonstration planned by democracy activists failed to materialize  in the model of  Arabic Awakenings is  due to two principal reasons –  first of the absence of a grass root movements to embrace their call since the diasporas has been  busy collecting money  criticizing one another in pal talks    rather than organizing  mass under trodden inside Ethiopia , thus end up being a media tiger  –  and  second of the Ethiopian youth is at embryonic stage of social networking highly controlled by the state. If any, they are all those the benefiter of the regime who manipulated the internet not the mass youth like that of Egypt and Tunisia.

Thousands of Ethiopians were forced to turn out in Addis Ababa’s main square to mark Prime Minister Melees Zenawi’s 20th anniversary in power at the risk of losing their job
though at the gunpoint the turnout at Addis Ababa’s Meskel Square was a fraction of the one million predicted by the dictator. The dictator order to cut down the event to its minimum gave further instruction for the office workers to go back to work.

In many part of country the regime deliberated its 2th anniversary the day before to circumvent the mass uprising.

The dictator Melese Zenawi’s address bit the record of minimum speech of 5 minutes to commemorate his coming to power 20 years ago, he used to make a long brain storming at the model of  totalitarian regimes. Rather he tried even to drawn it in the Nile by calling for support of construction of a massive dam. This I unprecedented challenge  for  downstream  riparian  by constructing a megalomaniac  death dam which eventually will drain and dry the  flow of the Nile river  by stopping the annual flooding., while Ethiopia endowed with plenty of thermal energy accessible with a less cost to human and environment consequences in a country   over 3 million starveling.

The last two decades of Melse’s regime took the starving Ethiopians for three major wars_ two Eritrea and one with Somalia. He dumped the election of 2005 which he lost in a day light. In 2010 he rugged the election by assuring his 3 decades of power in a dictatorial regime he created.

Today the regime is confronting a war in Somali region, in Kenyan border, and in the West of the country a conflict not yet accessible to the international media.

When it comes to liberation movements they have not yet found their Ethiopianist identity struggling inside the country. Many seems to follow the rhythm imposed by the belligerent regime of Eritrea or others or those movements fighting to create an independent Ethnic region in the model of Southern Sudan or Somaliland.

If the country could not find an avantgardist  alternative  to bring it to a democracy and consolidate the national state hood it will catch the syndrome of Somali and that of Yugoslavia leading to eventual  of balkanization based on the Ethnical constitution and its article 39  which permits  self determination up to independence. This the only constitution  having such article in the world.

Article 39 the Right of Nations, Nationalities and Peoples

1. Every nation, nationality or people in Ethiopia shall have the unrestricted right to self determination up to secession.

Meles Zenawi Speech on the 20th Anniversary of Ginbot 20, May 28


 

 

Global Earth Quakes , volcano of 24& 25 May, 2011

Global Earth Quake 24 May 2011

5/24/2011 — Last 7 days in earthquakes — large uptick in swarm activity

5/24/2011 — Dozens of tornadoes develop = Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, North Carolina,

5/24/2011 — Severe storms heading to St. Louis, Des Moines, Topeka, KC, and OKC.wmv

5/24/2011 — Tornadoes in Oklahoma City, Kansas, forming near North Carolina, and Virginia

5/25/2011 — St. Louis, Memphis, Little Rock Paducah, Chicago, Shreveport = 24 – 48 severe

5/25/2011 — expect another very busy weather day = entire midwest under severe threat

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5/25/2011 — St. Louis, Memphis, Little Rock Paducah, Chicago, Shreveport = 24 – 48 severe

5/25/2011 — expect another very busy weather day = entire midwest under severe threat

5/25/2011 — Springfield Illinois — intense HAARP ring and Ghost storm

5/25/2011 — St. Louis, Memphis, Little Rock Paducah, Chicago, Shreveport = 24 – 48 severe

Ethiopian Ocean Earth Quakes, Volcanoes, Floods of 21/05/2011

In the region of the Horn Africa is caught in a global earth’s magnetic shift and tectonic fault line creating seismic changes since it is located in the three diverging tectonic plates- Arabian, Nubian and Somalian. The Afar triangle passed the week end of 21 May under the menace of the live volcanic eruption which is active since millions of years.(See Video under Ethiopian Ocean) The e world been the moved by Earth Quake Flood and Volcanic Eruptions in accordance with the galactic alignment of the planet and the approaching comets to the Earth. The Iceland volcano re erupted exactly one year after by spreading its smokes menacing the international air flights (See the Video Under).

Earthquake activity in the last 8 to 30 days

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FGHQYTY6Seo&feature=player_detailpage

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4T-bFUTahWE&feature=player_detailpage

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Kenyans started waking up against the Ethiopian Water dictator Melese Zenawie’s Death Dam

The Kenyans are learning from the spirit of Chileans recent uprising in Andes region to stop the construction of Mega dams are now preparing to fight  the Ethiopian mad dictator and their rulers  from drying out Lake Turkana and exterminating the riparian Omotic population.  The Gibe dams on Omo River have a direct responsibility for the drought and the conflict in the Lake Turkana region between the tribes men in the region recently. Since the 2006 the date the Dams start taking  direct effect  the region which  is deprived of its annual water flow and precipitation. Drought and grazing land conflict has become a daily phenomenon due to the artificial control of the river Omo and luck of sufficient resources which used to depend entire on the river.  The Omotic population has lost its natural cycle of gazing their herds. Now the cyclic floods in the region have been stopped by the Ethiopian dictator Megalomaniac dams. Another destructive controversial project project has been prepared to be building on the Nile which will cease the cyclic flooding of the Nile in Egypt too. The Water dictator must be stop before he killed millions around the Horn of Africa by undo control of the rare floods.

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The true leaders of democratically elected northern Kenya MPs have vowed to stop the construction of Gibe III hydroelectric power in Ethiopia. Joseph Lekuton(Laisamis) Ekwee Ethuro(Turkana Central), Chachu Ganya (North Horr) and Gatanga MP Peter Kenneth called on the people of Loiyangalani to back their protests  to stop Ethiopia’s power plans. “The contract signed between the Kenyan and Ethiopia government to supply us with electricity should be revoked. People are dying due to lack of resources provided by the waters of Lake Turkana,” Lekuton said.”There is enough wind and solar that can generate electricity for the Turkana people. We do not need to sign a contract with our neighbor so that they can supply us with electricity while we are capable of generating our own,” he added. Ganya said: “Gibe dam will be fought to the end” Ethiopia too must use wind, solar and thermal energy than damming the rivers and kill starve million in riparian countries. We have seen recently the conflict  has already sparked in northern Kenya as  direct effect of the Damming in Ethiopia.

Gibe III is in its final construction stages though it was stopped by the recent collapse of the 26 meter tunnel built in the fault seismic  tectonic lines . Gibe III is the last  generation of hydroelectric power on the Omo River in Ethiopia which  will dry up  Lake Turkana for good. Since  Omo River drains its waters into Lake Turkana, the biggest desert lake in the world. This death dam once completed it would be the largest hydroelectric plant in Africa with a power output of about 1870 Megawatts which has no immediate utility in Ethiopia except exporting it to Kenya   with a direct  quenceqence   eradicating its population in Lake Turkana.

As of July 2010, the project was 38% complete drastically stopped due to the tunnel collapse. The completion of the  Gibe II Death Dam  was scheduled for July 2013. Full commissioning is scheduled for June 2013 after the reservoir is filled with water and the plant completed. Local and international environmentalists have raised concerns over the negative social and economic impacts of the dam.

Ethiopia’s plan to build Gibe III Dam now threatens food security and local economies that support more than half a million people in southwest Ethiopia and along the shores of Lake Turkana.

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Turkana South MP Josephat Nanok urged locals to “choose the right leaders” especially after the recent attack of Turkana people in Todonyang at the Kenyan- Ethiopian border. The MPs made their plans known at the fourth Lake Turkana festival at Loiyangalani at the weekend.

The Ethiopian dictator must be stopped before creating undue havoc  by constructing mega dams which are destructive to human and environments of the region. Ethiopia and Kenya does not need a mega dams rather sleeping turbines or  dams at human level rather than having inhuman  megalomaniac ones. It advisable  to have  many small level  dams to furnish the meager deeds of  electricity  agricultural Ethiopia  if we have to build one . But it is advisable to  completely to abandon the spirit of Dam in the region with a fragile Sahelian dry ecosystem. Ethiopia is endowed with thermo and wind power to be exploited. If Ethiopian dictator  continue damming  Omo river the already diminishing  Lake Turkana will surely dry up…

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The Best Example of Kenyan  Geothermal is the example to be followed  by the Ethiopian dictator rather than daming the rivers of Ethiopia which the life line of the people of Eastern Africa including Egypt:-

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Geothermal Power

The recent Kenyan Geothermal installation is the best example to be followed by the Ethiopian dictator who is trying to dam all the life giveing water of Eastern Africa including Egypt:-

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Solar Tower Energy

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Wind Turbine

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Chile Protest while pacified Ethiopia endorse Mega “Death Dams” being build on Tectonic Fault Seismic lines



“It‘s the most beautiful place, I believe, on the planet,” said Kennedy, who kayaks there every year. “I –don’t know any place like Patagonia.

Robert F. Kennedy Jr, a lawyer for the US-based National Resources Defense Council, appealed to Pinera to call off the project

Chilean environmentalists are fighting to stop the deadly dams to be constructed in the Andean glaciers to the Pacific Ocean through green valleys and fjords, while the Ethiopian dictator is preparing to build a deadly dam that will endanger million of lives of the riparian nations. The Pacified Ethiopian are forced to endorese the Death dam which will be the instrument to sell their fertile lands.

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In contrary to Ethiopia  Chile is a nation with its energy-intensive mining industry clamoring for more power and living standards improving, while Ethiopia is damming its rivers for the land Grabbers not even the local energy consumption.  This $7-billion project to dam two of the world’s wildest rivers for electricity has won environmental approval Monday from a Chilean government commission despite a groundswell of opposition while the Ethiopian dictatorial regime is not even take any measure to seek any environmental tests.

It was hidden as project X by the Ethiopian Dictator. The Chili and political appointees in the democratically elected  President Sebastian Pinero’s government – concluded a three-year environmental review by approving five dams on the Baker and Pascua rivers in Aysen, a mostly road less region of remote southern Patagonia where rainfall is nearly constant and rivers plunge which will definitively destroy the last remaining wonders of the Earth.

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The Chilean dams all  together could generate 2.75 gig watts, nearly a third of central Chile’s current capacity, within 12 years while the megalomaniac Ethiopian  Nile Death dam is suppose to produce Upon completion, will have an electric generation capacity of 6,000MW, three times more than the combined capacity of all Ethiopia’s existing dams.

When we go back to Chile the dams would drown 14,000 acres (5,700 hectares), require carving clear-cuts through forests, and eliminate whitewater rapids and waterfalls that attract ecotourism. Aysen region, while the Ethiopian gigantic dam will cover two time the Lake Tana which is from 3,000 to 3,500 km² according to the rainy seasons.

In Chile the Dam would destroy habitat for the endangered Southern Huemul deer: Fewer than 1,000 of the diminutive animals, while in the Nile Valley of Ethiopia an estimated Number of Flora and Fauna will be lost forever to come. In the contrary to the Chilean the Ethiopian dam will endanger the Lives of the people in Nile basin countries.

The Investors have spent Chile over $220 million on the project so far, but opposition has grown to 61 per cent of Chileans according to the latest Ipsos Public Affairs poll, and the government is concerned about a backlash. The Ethiopians even do not have a true democracy like that of Chile and are forced to accept whatever the Dictator dictates which Chile experienced a despotic regimes of the General in her recent past.

The Ethiopian the dam is contracted by Italian company Salini Costruttori for €3,350bln ($4,916bln). The Dam will be the biggest hydroelectric plants ever built in Africa, producing 5250 MW. Apart from forced contributions by Ethiopian institutions and citizens, there are serious suspicions that the Ethiopian Government will not be able to fund the work.

“The provenience of most funding for this and other Ethiopian Dams is utterly unclear,” declared an ex-officer of the Italian Cooperation in Ethiopia who refused to be credited.

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Chile is the world’s largest copper producer and e recently approved Latin America’s largest coal-fired plant, to power a mine near the northern deserts. Two other coal plants received the okay on Friday.  Thus its power grid has recently been under increased strain compared to the Ethiopian embryonic mining industry, where the dam is destined just for the land grabbers. Again the Chilean government is not selling its fertile land for land Grabbers while Ethiopia has already sold most of its cultivable land to the foreign investors at the same time over 3 million Ethiopian are starving of death.

In contrary to the Ethiopian death Dam which will end killing millions,   the Chilean HidroAysen is suppose to help Chile to receive the cheapest, cleanest electricity possible?  Though Several Chilean energy experts also dismissed solar as uncompetitive and years away from relevancy, a huge US$2.2 billion, 2.6 gigawatt solar project being built in the Mojave desert with private money and US government guarantees The latter will be the best example to the Ethiopians to learn from rather than building a destructive death dam and create undue conflict with the neighboring countries.

Great dam are highly environmental risks and catastrophic with moving tectonic regions and earth quake prone countries like Ethiopia and Chile. Westerners   that  had build greet dams in the past  have proved highly risky to the surrounding population as seen in China and the Us  in recent years with the increasing floods and earth quakes.

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Related

Thousands protest Chile mega-dam | Video | Reuters.com

Protest against new hydroelectric dams in Chile

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70th anniversary end of Fascist Occupation, 20th year of dictatorial rule in Ethiopia

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It has passed seven decades since Ethiopia was liberated from fascist occupation and mourns  2 decades of dictatorial regime which divide the country according to cartography. The new Ethiopian  dictator  passed this great day like nothing happen and unordinary day in the lives of the Ethiopians.

Italian dictator Benito Mussolini had long held a desire for a new Italian Empire. Reminiscent of the Roman Empire, Mussolini’s new empire was to rule over the Mediterranean and North Africa. His new empire would also avenge past Italian defeats. Chief among these defeats was the Battle of Adowa which took place in Ethiopia on March 1, 1896. Mussolini promised the Italian people “a place in the sun”, matching the extensive colonial empires of the United Kingdom and France.

Today Ethiopia is ruled by a home made dictator with a megalomaniac sprit not far from his oracle  Bhutto Mussolini. This new dictator of the 21st century is dreaming to build dams and in human construction in the image of  Stalin.  Different to Mussolini who likes to possess Ethiopia Melese Zenawie has sold the most fertile land of the country to the foreign grabbers while his people are dying from hunger and starvation.

Meyazia 27 Square (Arat Kilo) May 5, 1941

For Mussolini Ethiopia was a prime candidate of this expansionist goal for several reasons. Following the Scramble for Africa by the European imperialists it was one of the few remaining independent African nations, and it would serve to unify the Italian-held Eritrea to the northwest and Italian Somaliland to the east. It was considered to be militarily weak, and rich in resources. But for Melese Zenawi Ethiopia is a country to be Balkanized to many ethnical states.

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Italy was able to launch their invasion without interference primarily due to the United Kingdom and France placing a high priority on retaining Italy as an ally in case hostilities broke out with Germany. To this end, on January 7, 1935, France signed an agreement with Italy giving them essentially a free hand in Africa to secure Italian co-operation. Next, in April, Italy was further emboldened by being a member of the Stresa Front, an agreement to try and control German expansionism.In June, non-interference was further assured by a political rift that had developed between the United Kingdom and France following the Anglo-German Naval Agreement.

The Italo–Ethiopian Treaty of 1928 that delimited the border between Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia stated the border was 21 leagues parallel to the Benadircoast. Acting on this, they built a fort at the Walwal oasis (Italian Ual-Ual) in the Ogaden desert in 1930 and garrisoned it with Somalidubats (irregular frontier troops commanded by Italian officers).

In November of 1934, Ethiopian territorial troops escorting the Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission, protested Italy’s incursion. TheBritish members of the commission soon withdrew to avoid an international incident but Italian and Ethiopian troops remained encamped in close proximity. In early December, the tensions mounted to a clash that left 150 Ethiopians and 50 Italians dead. This resulted in the Abyssinia Crisis at the League of Nations.

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The League of Nations exonerated both parties for the Walwal incident in September 1935. Italy soon began to build its forces on the borders of Ethiopia in Eritrea and Italian Somaliland.

With an attack appearing inevitable, the Emperor Haile Selassie ordered a general mobilization. His new recruits consisted of around 500,000 men, many of whom were armed with nothing more than spears and bows. Other soldiers carried more modern weapons, including rifles, but many of these were from before 1900 and were badly outdated.

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According to Italian estimates, on the eve of hostilities the Ethiopians had an army of 350,000 men. Only about one-quarter of this army had any kind of military training and the men were armed with rifles of every type and in every kind of condition.

In general, the Ethiopian armies were poorly equipped. They had about 200 antiquated pieces of artillery mounted on rigid gun carriages. There were also about 50 light and heavy anti-aircraft guns (20 mm Oerlikons, 75 mm Schneiders, and Vickers). The Ethiopians even had some Ford truck-based armored cars and a small number of Fiat 3000 World War I-era tanks.

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The service-able portion of the Ethiopian air force included three tiny and outmoded biplanes.

The best Ethiopian units were Haile Selassie’s “Imperial Guard.” These troops were well-trained and better equipped than the other Ethiopian troops. But the Imperial Guard wore a distinctive greenish-khaki uniform of the Belgian army which stood out from the white cotton cloak (shamma) worn by most Ethiopian fighters, and proved to be an excellent target.

In April 1935, the Italian build-up in East Africa started in earnest. In a few months, five regular army divisions and five Blackshirtdivisions arrived in Eritrea. One regular division and a few Blackshirt battalions arrived in Italian Somaliland. These units alone, which did not include Italian units already in East Africa, native units, or units arriving during the war, represented 7,000 officers and 200,000 men.

The equipment for the build-up alone included 6,000 machine guns, 700 pieces of artillery, 150 tankettes, and 150 aircraft.

On October 3, 1935, Marshal Emilio De Bono advanced into Ethiopia from Eritrea without declaration of War. De Bono had a force of 100,000 Italian soldiers and 25,000 Eritrean soldiers under his command. A smaller force, under the command of General Rodolfo Graziani, advanced into Ethiopia from Italian Somaliland.

By October 6, Adwa was captured by De Bono’s forces. Adowa was the site of Italian defeat in the First Italo–Ethiopian War (1895-1896). By October 15, De Bono’s forces moved on to capture the holy capital of Axum. The invading Italians looted the Obelisk of Axum after capturing the city.

On October 7, the League of Nations declared Italy the aggressor and started the slow process of imposing sanctions. These did not extend to several vital materials, such as oil. The British and French argued that if they refused to sell oil to the Italians, they would then simply get it from the United States, which was not a member of the League (the British and French wanted to keep Mussolini on side in the event of war with Germany, which by 1935 was looking like a distinct possibility). In an effort to find compromise, the Hoare-Laval Plan was drafted (which essentially handed 3/5ths of Ethiopia to the Italians without Ethiopia’s consent on the condition the war ended immediately), but when news of the deal was leaked public outrage was such that the British and French governments were forced to wash their hands of the whole affair.

By mid-December, De Bono was replaced by General Pietro Badoglio because of the slow, cautious nature of his advance. Haile Sellassie decided to test this new general with an attack, but his forces were repelled due to the Italians’ superiority in heavy weapons like machine guns and artillery.

On January 20, 1936, the Italians resumed their northern offensive at the First Battle of Tembien between the Warieu Pass andMek’ele. The fighting proved inconclusive and ended in a draw on January 24.

Following the capture of Amba Aradam (Battle of Enderta) on 15 February, the Italians advanced again on the northern front, commencing the Second Battle of Tembien on 27 February. This resulted in an Italian victory and the fall of Worq Amba.

At the Battle of Maych’ew on 31 March 1936, the Italians defeated a counteroffensive by the main Ethiopian army, including the Imperial Guard, under Haile Selassie.

During the final months of 1935 the Italian had also advanced from the south through the Ogaden Desert from Somalia. There were clashes on the River Dewa (30 October), Hamaniei (11 November) and Lama Scillindi (25 November). On 31 December the Italians occupied Denan.

Between January 12 and January 16, 1936, the Italians defeated the southermost Ethiopian army in the Battle of Genale Wenz. After a February lull, the Italians began a major thrust towards the city of Harar. On March 29, Graziani’s forces firebombed and subsequently captured the city. Two days later, the Italians won the last major battle of the war, the Battle of Maychew. Haile Selassie fled into exile on May 2, and Badoglio’s forces took the capital, Addis Ababa, on May 5, 1936.

Italy annexed the country on May 7, and the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III, was proclaimed emperor on May 9. Italy merged Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somaliland into a single state known as Italian East Africa.

In addition to conventional weaponry, Badoglio’s troops also made substantial use of mustard gas, in both artillery and aerial bombardments. In total, the Italians deployed between 300 and 500 tonnes of mustard gas during the war, despite having signed the1925 Geneva Protocol. The deployment of gas was not restricted to the battlefield, however, as civilians were also targeted by the Italians, as part of their attempt to terrorise the local population. Furthermore, the Italians carried out gas attacks on Red Cross camps and ambulances.[15]

The armed forces disposed of a vast arsenal of grenades and bombs loaded with mustard gas which were dropped from airplanes. This substance was also sprayed directly from above like an “insecticide” onto enemy combatants and villages. It was Mussolini himself who authorized the use of the weapons:

“Rome, 27 October ’35. A.S.E. Graziani. The use of gas as an ultima ratio to overwhelm enemy resistance and in case of counterattack is authorized. Mussolini.”

“Rome, 28 December ’35. A.S.E. Badoglio. Given the enemy system I have authorized V.E. the use even on a vast scale of any gas and flamethrowers. Mussolini.”

Mussolini and his generals sought to cloak the operations of chemical warfare in the utmost secrecy, but the use of gas was revealed to the world through the denunciations of the International Red Cross and of many foreign observers. The Italian reaction to these revelations consisted in the “erroneous” bombardment (at least 19 times) of Red Cross tents posted in the areas of military encampment of the Ethiopian resistance. The orders imparted by Mussolini, with respect to the Ethiopian population, were very clear:[16]

“Rome, 5 June 1936. A.S.E. Graziani. All rebels taken prisoner must be killed. Mussolini.”

“Rome, 8 July 1936. A.S.E. Graziani. I have authorized once again V.E. to begin and systematically conduct a politics of terror and extermination of the rebels and the complicit population. Without the lex talionis one cannot cure the infection in time. Await confirmation. Mussolini.”

The predominant part of the work of repression was carried out by Italians who, besides the bombs laced with mustard gas, instituted forced labor camps, installed public gallows, killed hostages, and mutilated the corpses of their enemies. Graziani ordered the elimination of captured guerrillas by way of throwing them out of airplanes in mid-flight. Many Italian troops had themselves photographed next to cadavers hanging from the gallows or hanging around chests full of detached heads.

One episode in the Italian occupation of Ethiopia was the slaughter of Addis Ababa of February 1937 which followed upon an attempt to assassinate Graziani. In the course of an official ceremony a bomb exploded next to the general. The response was immediate and cruel, as he said “Avenge me! Kill them all!”. The Black Shirts of the Fascist Militia fired randomly into the Ethiopians present at the ceremony killing large numbers, and immediately after poured out into the streets of Addis Ababa where they killed the Ethiopian civilians that they encountered. They also set fire to homes and organized the mass executions of a large groups of people.[17] The massacre claimed lives of 30,000 Ethiopians.

When victory was announced on 9 May 1936 from the balcony of Palazzo Venezia, the Italian population (who had not been informed of the use of mustard gas by their troops) was jubilant.

On 30 June 1936, Emperor Haile Selassie gave a stirring speech before the League of Nations denouncing Italy’s actions and criticizing the world community for standing by. He warned that “It is us today. It will be you tomorrow”. As a result of the League’s condemnation of Italy, Mussolini declared the country’s withdrawal from the organization.

The Italian Empire was officially recognized by the Empire of Japan on November 18, 1936.[18]

The occupation was marked by recurring guerrilla campaigns against the Italians, and reprisals which included mustard gas attacks against rebels and the murder of prisoners.

In early June 1936, Rome promulgated a constitution bringing Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Italian Somaliland together into a single administrative unit divided into six provinces, Italian East Africa. On June 11, 1936, Marshal Rodolfo Graziani replaced Marshal Pietro Badoglio, who had commanded the Italian forces in the war. In December the Italians declared the whole country to be pacified and under their effective control. Ethiopian resistance nevertheless continued.

A failed assassination attempt against Graziani occurred on February 19, 1937. During a public ceremony at the Viceregal Palace (the former Imperial residence) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Abraha Deboch and Moges Asgedom, two men of Eritrean origin, attempted to kill Viceroy Graziani with a number of grenades. The Italian security guard fired indiscriminately into the crowd of civilian onlookers. Over the following weeks the colonial authorities executed about 30,000 persons in retaliation – including about half of the younger, educated Ethiopian population.

This harsh policy, however, did not pacify the country. In November 1937, Rome therefore appointed a new governor and instructed him to adopt a more flexible line. Accordingly, large-scale public works projects were undertaken. One result was the construction of the country’s first system of improved roads. In the meantime, however, the Italians had decreed miscegenation to be illegal. Racial separation, including residential segregation, was enforced as thoroughly as possible. The Italians showed favoritism to non-Christianethnicities such as the Oromo, Somali, and other Muslims (some of whom had supported the Italian invasion) by granting them autonomy and rights effectively abolishing slavery and abrogating feudal laws previously upheld by the dominant Amhara rulers of Ethiopia, in an attempt to isolate the Amhara, who had supported Haile Selassie I.

Early in 1938, a revolt broke out in Gojjam led by the Committee of Unity and Collaboration, which was made up of some of the young, educated elite who had escaped the reprisal after the attempt on Graziani’s life. In exile in Britain, the Emperor sought to gain the support of the Western democracies for his cause but had little success until Italy entered World War II on the side of Germany in June 1940. Thereafter, Britain and the Emperor sought to cooperate with Ethiopian and other local forces in a campaign to dislodge the Italians from Ethiopia and British Somaliland, which the Italians had seized in August 1940, and to resist the Italian invasion ofSudan. Haile Selassie proceeded immediately to Khartoum, where he established closer liaison with both the British headquarters and the resistance forces within Ethiopia.File:EritreaCampaign1941 map-en.svg


E
thiopia (Abyssinia), which Italy had unsuccessfully tried to conquer in the 1890s, was in 1934 one of the few independent states in a European-dominated Africa. A border incident between Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland that December gave Benito Mussolini an excuse to intervene. Rejecting all arbitration offers, the Italians invaded Ethiopia on Oct. 3, 1935.Italo-Ethiopian War (1935-36), an armed conflict that resulted in Ethiopia’s subjection to Italian rule. Often seen as one of the episodes that prepared the way for World War II, the war demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations when League decisions were not supported by the great powers.

Under Generals Rodolfo Graziani and Pietro Badoglio, the invading forces steadily pushed back the ill-armed and poorly trained Ethiopian army, winning a major victory near Lake Ascianghi (Ashangi) on April 9, 1936, and taking the capital, Addis Ababa, on May 5. The nation’s leader, Emperor Haile Selassie, went into exile. In Rome, Mussolini proclaimed Italy’s king Victor Emmanuel III emperor of Ethiopia and appointed Badoglio to rule as viceroy.

Italian East Africa - 1936-1940 it.svg

In response to Ethiopian appeals, the League of Nations had condemned the Italian invasion in 1935 and voted to impose economic sanctions on the aggressor. The sanctions remained ineffective because of general lack of support. Although Mussolini’s aggression was viewed with disfavour by the British, who had a stake in East Africa, the other major powers had no real interest in opposing him. The war, by giving substance to Italian imperialist claims, contributed to international tensions between the fascist states and the Western democracies.

Melese   Like his role Model  Mussolini Will be Hanged  in Addis … the moment  of truth  will not be long with coming North African Social Tsunami  that swetp away  his friend Mubarak.

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Eritrean Sea Earthquake Magnitude 4.4 menaces Millennium “Death Dams

Today’s earth quake of magnitude 4.4 moved the Red Sea which is a prelude for the making of Eastern African ocean. It has a direct impact on the different dams which are in construction in the Horn of Africa, especially that of the Millennium “Death  Dam”  in the the Nile region of Ethiopia. This the second earth quake in the region since the start of the Death Dam. On March 31 st Magnitude 4.6 – hit Eritrea, Ethiopia and Djibouti border on Afar depression. This is the region where the new ocean is in formation. It is high risk for the population in the area to peruse damming by the dictatorial regime of Ethiopia especially the Omotic population in the rift Vally. The Afar region of Ethiopia is plate form of  a living volcano preparing the breaking of the continent for the creation of this new ocean of Ethiopia. It takes only  a dictator to  try to build dams on the splitting  plates of Eastern Africa trying to connect two separating plates with with a cement. Last year a 26 km  tunnel collapsed on the Omo Dam known as Gibe due to the earth’s movement on its diverging eastern African plates .

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Earthquake Location

Magnitude 4.4 NEAR THE East COAST OF Eritrea Tuesday, May 03, 2011 at 18:50:32 UTC

Major Tectonic Boundaries: Subduction Zones -purple, Ridges -red and Transform Faults -green
Major Tectonic Boundaries: Subduction Zones -purple, Ridges -red and Transform Faults -green
Preliminary Earthquake Report U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center World Data Center for Seismology, Denver
Fig. 1.1.