An Ethiopian baby is born on high waters… escaping from Gadaffi & Melese Zenawie

Eritrean  adn Ethiopians found themselves between the hammer and the hard thing, found them selves in high waters

Africans escaping from dictatorial regimes found themselves between the hammer and the hard thing. Those   trying to save their lives from one found themselves stranded in the conflict of the other.  Many   are drowning in the coast of Libya, while others have been sold as slaves in Sinai trying to cross to the Promised Land. Those who stayed behind in the camps of Gadaffi are stigmatized and marked as his mercenary by local population.  Many Ethiopian and Eritreans have been victims of rape and body trafficking. Recently an Ethiopian baby is delivered on a boat from a rapped mother. Gaddafie has a great responsibly in financing and arming most the African tyrants to power.  When it comes to the new mother, the Libyan dictator   has a direct responsibility in her rape   in Libya and for his support tyrant regimes   in Eastern Africa.

On the 26 of March 2011, the first of wrecked boat able to reach the coast escaping form the North African uprising carrying over 350 East Africans refugees from Libya.  One of the rapped women who were evacuated from the boat to a hospital on the island of Lampedusa lost her baby.   The Earlier young lady who was airlifted from the tiny island to a hospital in Sicily a named her child «Yeabsera” (” Glad tiding of God”) on the memory of her hardship and that God saved her from perishing in the seas.





According to Laura Boldrini a spokeswoman of the UNHCR in Italy confirmed that the African groups need international protection. “Until now the only migrants to arrive in Lampedusa were Tunisians, and this is the first boat coming from Libya with people fleeing the military escalation, the vendettas and the retaliation attacks.”

T Italy and Libya signed a friendship treaty in 2008 which Italian authorities say led to a 94-percent decrease in illegal immigration.   These days Gaddafi himself has threatened to send “millions” of migrants to Europe as a soft weapon of war against NETO groups.  The last group that arrived   in the wrecked boat on Saturday is mostly Eritreans, Ethiopians and Somalian. Over 15,000 mostly Tunisian migrants have landed on Lampedusa in rickety fishing boats since the ouster of Tunisian Dictator Ben Ali, and more are expected every day.  According AFP, “more than 1,000 migrants arrived on the island on Saturday including 69 who were rescued from a sinking boat by a fishing trawler.” There were chaotic scenes when three boats carrying some 600 migrants arrived in the port. The Italian security forces have been seen to prevent a crowd of migrants already on the island from surging towards them. Recently the Italian government has suspended the treaty and warns that hundreds of thousands of migrants could depart for Italy if Gaddafi’s regime falls.

Italy has requested increased assistance from the European Union. The boat was assisted on Friday by a Canadian warship taking part in a mission by the NATO alliance to enforce a naval arms embargo on Libya. Coastguards said the boat would not be taken to Lampedusa but to the nearby island of Linosa and the passengers would then be taken to a refugee centre. David Taylor, a spokesman for the NATO embargo mission based in Naples, said: “We are monitoring the situation very closely and confidently.” It is reported that that the boat arriving in Italy had left Tripoli in the night between Thursday and Friday. The refuges informed the local UNHCR officer that four or five other boats carrying African migrants had also left Libyan shores carrying around 1,000 people. The charity Save the Children said around 250 Tunisian children is still on the island, which is closer to North Africa than to mainland Italy.


More than 250 other children — most of them teenagers — have been taken to special care homes in other parts of Italy in recent weeks. Ninety-six of the children were transferred to an abandoned US Coast Guard base on Lampedusa on Saturday after Save the Children said the conditions in which they had been living on the island were unacceptable. The island is struggling to cope with all the recent arrivals and hundreds of migrants have been sleeping out in the open because of a lack of space. “We believe it is necessary for transit centers to be set up for children to ensure acceptable living conditions while they wait to be installed in communities,” Rafaela Milano of Save the Children said in a statement. The European assistance in the elimination of African dictators will surely stop the inflow of refuges to their mainland. Gaddafie was highly implicated in the Horn of Africa conflict that cost millions of life, not forgetting scores of conflicts he financed throughout the continent that assured many tyrants to stick on power.



Birtukan Mideksa embattled Ethiopian Party Leader “Forced Exile ” ?


ThumbnailETV Visit to Kalite Federal Prison – Meet Birtukan Mideksa

The Ethiopian opposition leader Birtukan Mideksa who was imprisoned for life  two times in post election riot   of 2005, and liberated two times with with so called   “dictatorial amnesty”  after recognizing the so called  ” crime committed “against the irredentist regime.

She was recently pushed to step down from the leadership of her party, Unity for Democracy and Justice (UDJ) Party. This was done first   in a pretext to take care of her immediate family and now to pursue higher education in the US. We are hopping the truth will finally come to light once in the US. And the whole world will know the veracity about the dictatorial regime of Melese Zenawie behavior. Birtukan is not the only one after   so called «dictatorial pardon» who has been forced to exile.

ThumbnailBirtukan Mideksa Pardoned Again(English news).wmv



Birtukan was scheduled to leave for the US on Saturday, March 19, 2011, accompanied by her daughter. She is expected to arrive first in San Francisco, California, where she has relatives, sources told Fortune.

Birtukan will head off for Maryland after spending three weeks in San Francisco, where she is expected to spend the next two to three years pursuing higher education there. In a statement she released on Friday, Birtukan asserted that she is not bowing out of politics.

“To believe that Birtukan would abandon her struggle towards building a free democracy is unthinkable,” the statement read. It was also learnt that Yilma Yifru would be mediating between the two factions that emerged within the party during her 21 months in jail.


Africa Land of Dictators waiting for Social tsunami

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Following the Social Tsunami in the Arab World, it is a high time the continent of Africa to get rid of its dictators and join the democratic world. Recently Associated Press dressed a list of African remaining “Big Men” – the leaders who refuse to surrender power, and their sons. We have added the Algerian dictator to the list and made the images to complete the work.


Teodoro Obiang Nguema of Equatorial Guinea, 69 – Took power in a bloody coup in 1979.

Jose Eduardo dos Santos of Angola, 68 – President since 1979. Promised elections from 2006 until last year, when a new constitution abolished presidential balloting. The leader of the party that wins most parliament seats becomes president.

Denis Sassou-Nguesso of Republic of Congo, 67 – President from 1979 until a 1992 election defeat, seized power again in 1997 with help from Angolan troops.

Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, 87 – Elected 1980 after a seven-year war for black rule. Refused to accept a 2008 election defeat and is pushing to end a shaky unity government coalition.

Paul Biya of Cameroon, 77 – President since 1982. Has won questionable elections since 1992. Changed constitution so he can run again this year.

Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, about 66 – President since 1986 when he took power as a rebel leader and ended a civil war. Refused to hold elections until 1996. Most recently reelected March 9 in elections opposition claims were rigged.

King Mswati III of Swaziland, 42 – Succeeded his father in 1986. The last absolute monarch in the world.

Blaise Compaore of Burkina Faso, 60 – Took power from his best friend, assassinated in the 1987 palace coup. Changed the constitution limiting presidential terms. Holds elections whose results are disputed by a fragmented msg opposition.

Omar al-Bashir of Sudan, 67 – Led a bloodless coup in 1989. First sitting head of state indicted by the International Criminal Court, for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur.

Idriss Deby of Chad, 59 or 60 – Seized power in a 1990 coup. Eliminated constitutional term limits to contest questionable elections. Faces voters in April.

Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia, 55 – Part of a rebel group that ended a civil war in 1991. Elected in 1995. Has held questionable elections marred by riots and bloodshed.

Isaias Afwerki of Eritrea, 65 – Led the Eritrean rebel movement that helped end Ethiopia’s civil war in 1991 and ushered in Eritrea’s independence, with him as president, in 1993. Says he expects to live another 40 to 50 years and Eritrea may hold elections in 30 or 40 years.

Paul Kagame of Rwanda, 53 – Led rebels who ended Rwanda’s genocide in 1994. Elected since 2000 in elections from which all meaningful opponents have been barred.

Yahya Jammeh of Gambia, 45 – Took power in a 1994 coup and vows to never leave. Tribal chieftains are campaigning to make him king.

Ismail Omar Guelleh of Djibouti, 67 – Elected 1999 to continue a 30-year family dynasty. Changed constitution so he can run for a third term in April.

Faure Gnassingbe of Togo, 44 – Won disputed 2005 elections to succeed his father, who ruled for 38 years.

Ali Bongo of Gabon, 52 – Won 2009 elections amid charges of vote-rigging and violent protests after the death of his father, who had ruled since 1967.

Laurent Gbagbo of Ivory Coast, 65 – Assumed office in 2000 after elections barring leading opponents. Lost 2010 elections but refuses to step down.

Abdelaziz Bouteflika, 74 President of Algeria. He has been in office since 1999. He has continued emergency rule and presided over the end of the bloody Algerian Civil War in 2002

Gaddafi Grounded, UN voted for “Non Flay Zone” a new precedent against all dictators…

The New UN Security Council Resolution Set a New precedence to defend the civil society from the any reigning dictators, giving a new role for the UN as a protector of the people,  if the same measure is applicable to all member states  without double standard. The coming revolt against any dictators will use this model to defend themselves against the massacre by their own non elected leaders reigning with force like in Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, Burma  etc… The Resolution authorizes UN members to take “all necessary measures” to protect civilians and civilian centers; Gaddafi tells rebels that armed forces plan on taking over Benghazi; regime vows retaliation for intervention. “Today the Security Council has responded to the Libyan people’s cry for help,” US Ambassador to the UN Susan Rice said. “This Council’s purpose is clear: to protect innocent civilians.” The resolution demands the “immediate establishment of a cease-fire and a complete end to violence and all attacks, and abuses, of civilians.” The resolution stipulates that member states, upon notification to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon and Arab League Secretary General Amr Moussa, can “take all necessary measures…to protect civilians and civilian populated areas, including Benghazi, while excluding a foreign occupation force of any form on any part of Libyan territory.”

The Security Council’s authorization of the use of force also includes the enforcement of a no-fly zone to protect civilians, as well as an enforcement of the arms embargo, banning all international flights by Libyan owned or operated aircraft. The resolution also freezes the assets of certain individuals and five entities including critical state-owned Libyan companies. A newly established Libyan Sanctions Committee is empowered by the resolution to impose sanctions on those who violate the arms embargo, including by providing Gaddafi with mercenaries. “The future of Libya should be decided by the people of Libya,” Rice said in her remarks to the Security Council. “The United States stands with the Libyan people in support of their universal rights.” The resolution was backed strongly by France, the United Kingdom and Lebanon. Ten countries voted in favor of the resolution. Russia, China, Germany, India and Brazil abstained. “Our resolution is aimed to protect Libyan civilians,” Lebanon’s ambassador to the UN Nawaf Salam said. “It will not result in the occupation of even an inch of Libyan territory.” Such resolution send cold breeze to the reigning dictators around the world as a new model to follow to liberate the subjugated nations around the world …?   ThumbnailThumbnailThumbnail

by Vote of 10 in Favour with 5 Abstentions (17 March 2011)

Saudi send soldiers to Bahrain to fight Social Tsunami




The over 230 years old  ruling  Bahrain’s Sunni dynasty  called Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates to stop the social revolution. They dispatched forces to Bahrain on Monday to put down weeks of protests by the country’s Shi’ite Muslim majority. Opponents and Iran called the move a declaration of war; others called it pure annexation of the Island kingdom. On arrival the protestors way of welcoming the 100 strong Saudi soldiers by shooting one dead.  The king reacted by declaring a three month   emergency rule all over the island.

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The home of the US Navy’s Fifth Fleet, the White House said Monday it did not consider the Saudi entry into Bahrain an invasion. “We urge the government of Bahrain, as we have repeatedly, as well as other GCC countries, to exercise restraint.”

Bahrain would be occupied for the coming unknown period by the   Saudi soldiers in fear of the concessions by the country’s monarchy to the Shi’ite.   The Saudi Sunnite Kings are in fear of the revolt from Bahrain to spreading   to her Eastern Province, which is inhabited by Shift and the center of the Saudi oil industry.

“They are part of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) force that would guard the government installations,” referring to the six-member bloc that coordinates military and economic policy in the world’s top oil-exporting region. Bahrain said on Monday it had asked the Gulf troops for support in line with a GCC defense pact. The Gulf Cooperation Council comprises Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

The UAE sent about 500 police officers into Bahrain, Emirati Foreign Minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed al-Nahayan said.

“The Bahraini government asked us yesterday to look at ways to help them to defuse the tension,” he said.

“Other Gulf countries will also participate to get calm and order in Bahrain,” said Sheikh Abdullah, in Paris for a meeting of G8 foreign ministers.

Bahrain has been gripped by its worst unrest since the 1990s after protesters took to the streets last month, inspired by uprisings that toppled the leaders of Egypt and Tunisia. Thousands are still camped out at the Pearl roundabout, having returned since the army cleared out the area last month.

Any intervention by Gulf Arab troops in Bahrain is highly sensitive on the island, where the Shiite Muslim majority complains of discrimination by the Sunni Muslim royal family. The whole world is waiting   the move of Iran  in reaction   to the move of  Saudis in the defense of the Minority Sunnite In Bahrain, the Island populated by majority Shi’ite in revolt?.

Yemen the End of the Road Blood and Bullet

The Yemen 32 years of dictator Security forces fired bullets    and tear a nerve gas at protesters yesterday, wounding at least 100 people killing unknown number of protesters camping out near Sana University. The day’s violence was the latest evidence that month long protests demanding the resignation of Yemen’s longtime dictators were spiraling out of control.

Embattled President Ali Abdullah Saleh has resorted to increasingly violent tactics to try to put down the burgeoning uprising against his dictatorial rule, deploying dozens of armed supporters on the streets in an attempt to intimidate protesters.

Wielding clubs and knifes, police and regime supporters — described by protesters as government-sponsored thugs — attacked activists. Yemen would go soon worst than Libya lading to the split of the country into north and South once more.  Among the wounded yesterday, more than 20 suffered gas inhalation, and one was in critical condition after being struck with a bullet.

In the main square and in surrounding streets, people being beaten up and threatened, as well as disappearing. The violence came a day after security forces killed seven demonstrators in protests around the country.

Young activists camped out in the square near the university continued to expand the area of their sit-in and threatened to march on the presidential palace about 3 miles away. Rock-throwing battles between protesters and security troops broke out on the edges of the encampment.

Protesters said the authorities were trying to draw them into a cycle of violence to further justify a crackdown.

ThumbnailPitched street battle in Yemeni capita

Bahrain on the Dynamic of Social change in progress

The Bahrain ‘rentier state’ Social revolution is moving on the right direction getting the right concession from the Arabian Night kingdom of the Khalifa’s. The youth has become the motor of change in the country. It revolution moving  beyond religious or tribal lines. The Dynamic of the movement has caused less damage to the civilians population   compared to the worst dictatorial regime of Mohamed Qaddafi in Libya.

The Bahrain Social Tsunami has to navigate the Kalifa’s regime and most of all global powers  do not want a  change that decrease the oil flows to their tanks. Since the Anglo-Saxons in end of 70’s had build in the Island kingdom a system of power based on neoliberal accumulation and oil capital.

They know that if Bahrain monarchy falls, then the crisis of western growth would be intensified. Bahrain may stop hosting the US Navy. Saudi Arabia will follow suit on the already boiling Eastern region over taken by a Shia majority, and would start to build on the protests already in explosive.


Thumbnail24:31PeoplePower – Bahrain: Fighting for change

As unrest sweeps through the Middle East, PeoplePower looks at the mounting pressure for reform in Bahrain.

The Bahrain Khalifa  gave order to kill to his inhuman security forces known for shooting unarmed civilian in the past. The King seems following the foot setps of Mohamed Gaddafi. The kingdoms crakdown on the protestors will completly distablise the process of social change to a bloody revolution.



Bahrain protesters hit by tear gas

Riot police in Bahrain have used tear gas and rubber bullets in an attempt to prevent hundreds of anti-government protesters from blocking 


11:22 The Full Video: Bahrain’s army deliberately kills peaceful protesters

Bahrain’s army deliberately kills peaceful protesters with live rounds (automatic weapon ) Photos in the hospital of the person who was killed

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Japan doom’s day Earth Quake & Tsunami 3 days after Hawaiian Volcanic high movement showing the scenario of the coming days

The New Earthquake and Tsunami that followed March 12, 2011 devastation will join our past and the coming history of   two remote times in Japanese and world civilization. In the Antediluvian time of pre 12000BCE, the region of Yonaguni not far from the joining point of the three tectonic plates Eurasian, Pacific and Pilipino, once existed   the Japanese Atlantis. It was constructed with great curved rock hewn city similar to the Ethiopian highland Lalibela churches. Today under water vanished from our memories swept away by the moving plates of the earth. One thing sue the Japanese civilizing had had build cities hewn from rocks predicting the coming danger. We hope the nuclear stations and the coming cities are built out of such stones by dispersing the population in larger areas…


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Ethiopian Mubarak Zenawie uses “Muslims Mob” in the South To burn Churches

The Ethiopian Mubarak, Melese Zenawie has been using Islam and Islamists as main enemy of his regime to win the sympathy of western islamophobia since 911 terrorist acts. The dictatorial ruler of Ethiopia has been supported by the west especially the US as a main allay to fight Islamic terrorism in the Horn of Africa. He has prepared and trained qualified agents to provoke the mob in the name of & in the protection of their faith. The recent Church burning in the south is targeted to the western Evangelical faith is trained and prepared by the genocidal regime of Melse Zenawie. This was done by the agents of the genocidal dictators himself to show that he is fighting Islam extremism in his country of  Christians . He is not even ashamed to incarcerate the victims themselves  in the pretext of protecting them. The dictator is qualified in playing such games since he could not imprison his own agents sent for such in human mission, rather easier to persecute the victim. This is done to prove to the West that Muslims in Ethiopia are defusing extremist ideologies endangering the existence of pro Western “Christian Ethiopia”. The same game was played by Hosni Mubarak against the  Copts to perpetuate his power over Egypt and to assure  finical support for West for over four decades.
The news went on playing in the hands of the Ethiopian dictator by declaring  that “Southern Ethiopia 5 evangelical Christian churches are burned down by the Ethiopian Muslim extremist”. Why not local orthodox churches were not burned down at the same time since in every corner in Ethiopia you find Orthodox Churches .  Both  have cohabited for centuries together. one has to ask,Why then it is targeted against the evangelical western Church ?
Ethiopia is a country where Muslims and Christians cohabit for over a millennium. Ethiopia is cited in the Holy Book of Islam the Quran at far at the outset of Islam far back in the time of the Prophet. The country is considered as a country not subjected to Jihad. It is considered as Beled Al Aareb.( country of Semitic Arabic Culture)
The first hijra (migration in Islam history was done in Ethiopia by the order of the Prophet himself:-

“Abyssinia, there you would find a king there who does not wrong anyone!”

The Prophet saw the persecution to which his followers were subjected in Mecca, ordered his followers  to find safe haven in  Ethiopia.
Today the expansion of Islam is due to the Ethiopian King Negasi known in Arabic Tradition Ashama ibn Abjar who saved from annihilation the first ever sect who escaped to Ethiopia from the persecution of the leader of Quraysh tribe . Thus Ethiopia played a great role in safe guarding the prophet family.

The pervert Melese regime programmed his agents  to burn down evangelical  Churches in the South. As expected  the International Christian Concern reacted fast by reporting  that ” the Ethiopian Muslims burnt down five churches, and more attacks are feared from the religion of barbarianism “, with out considering both side of the story , by a simple reality judgment .”  Everything is playing in his hand a dictator trying to turn the world attention from Northern Africa revolutionary  events . Moreover, even the church leaders  ask  for government protection from the ongoing Muslim attacks. The  mob followed his orders  and  thousands instigated mobs came out and have razed five churches and the homes of two evangelists in Asendabo, Ethiopia. The response of the Ethiopian regime is to send security forces ordered  simply to watch that the rest of the the remaining two churches to burn to ashes  and put to jail the remaining Christians asking for protection.
Thus hiding the  main cause that sparked the violent,  the regime itself. The  story  falsely blamed  the executing mob, and the official version of the story for the western consumption, goes the following wise:-
“The Christians of desecrating the Qur’an, more than ten thousand Muslims shouted “Allah Akbar” (Allah is great) as they burned down five evangelical churches.” The government sent the federal police force to protect the Christians after the Muslims burned down the first three churches. The Muslims overwhelmed the police force and burned down two more churches today.”

And the Christian leaders played what is expected for them by the Ethiopian regime “that Muslims will start killing the Christians unless the government sends more security forces to contain the Muslim attackers.” Yes with the help and finance of the West !
The manipulating dictatorial regime could not put the culprit in prison, the instigators and attackers have not been arrested. The government officials detained some Christians and took them to the nearby Jimma town stating that they need to do that for their own security.
The International Christian Concern (ICC) reaction  fall in the hands of the Ethiopian regime which has instigated the scenario for its final games that “The Ethiopian regime need to be supported to fight Muslim extremist in his country and the region”.
So the story goes in the government favor since nobody dares to tell the truth rather the next news of ICC went:-
“Ethiopia is a Christian majority country and was one of the first nations to accept Christianity. However, in the areas of the country where Muslims are the majority, Christians face attacks.” And further:-
“We urge Ethiopian government forces to send reinforcement to protect the Christians in the city of Asendabo from the Muslim attacks. We ask Christians around the world to prevent any further attacks by calling the Ethiopian officials in their countries and asking them to protect the Christians and their property,” said ICC’s Regional Manager for Africa, Jonathan Racho.
“Please urgently contact the Ethiopian officials in your country and urge them to send more security forces to protect the Christians from the Muslim attacks.”
It is a high time that the international community to understand the game of this  dictatorial regimes to maintain its  personal powers by prorogating religious and ethnically based  conflicts  to perpetuate its grip on Ethiopia using the western finical and military support.

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Adwa once unified all the people of African descent, 115 years after divides Ethiopia Prof. Muse Tegegne

The name Adwa divides and unifies Ethiopians today.  115 years ago the 1st of March 1896 it unified not only Ethiopia but the whole people of African descent and the rest of people under colonial subjugation.  Today the name in Ethiopia signifies division dismemberment. It was in 1991 that the son of Adwa Melese Zenawie took over the reign of power in the palace of Menelik II.  This is the same throne where the king of kings the lion of Adwa the pride of all people of African descent seat. Melese the worst dictator Ethiopia has ever seen is set to balkanize Ethiopia, a country Menelik fought and won the greatest battle against the Scramble for Africa.

The battle of Adwa of March first of March, 1896 a great victory and pride for Africans at home Diaspora. The victory assured that Ethiopia successfully resists European colonization.

Italy the late comer to the scramble for Africa in the late 19th century   was allocated to Ethiopia but just needed to take control. The Italians and the rest of the European powers present at the Berlin Conference 1880’s wrongly assumed that Ethiopia was made up of rival tribes fighting one another and thought it would be a quick promenade for their 20,000 strong highly trained invasion forces, they never though these what they call “tribal back word savages “could be united raising a much larger patriotic people’s army to defend their country and even to win an all out war.


Map of the Battle of Adowa, between the forces of General Oreste Baratieri, Italian governor of Eritrea and Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia.

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The main cause of the Battle being the European colonial ambition it manifested through the deferent treaty the colonial powers used to cheat the Africans. This was highly manifested by Italo Ethiopian Treaty known as the Wechale Treaty.   The colonial manipulation started when Menelik II came to the throne in 1889 the Italians thought that he would surrender sovereignty to them since they had been supplying him with ammunitions. They succeeded to manipulate the king on  May 2, 1889, to make him  sign  the Treaty  of Uccialli in the province of Wello, with which Menelik accorded for the  Italians some land in Tigre to the already concession he has made by letting them to take Eritrea. In this famous once sided treaty, they   tricked Menelik by having two different versions- one in Italian and other in Amharic. The secret of the Italian plan was manifested on   article 17 which read in one in Amharic and other in Italian.   Thus the Italian version read: –
The Emperor consents to use the Italian government for all the business he does with all the other Powers or Governments“.
The Amharic version reads:-
The Emperor has the option to communicate with the help of the Italian government for all matters that he wants with the kings of Europe.”

When Menelik realized that he had been cheated he immediately rejected the treaty and refused all further offers of gifts from the Italians. Turkey, Russia and France stood to the Ethiopian version of the story.  Finally Menelik decided to confront the advancing Italian Army which has already occupied Tigre Provence without his contentment.

As a result in September of 1895, Menelik, King of Kings of Ethiopia mobilized the population of Ethiopia to arms. Over 100,000 Ethiopians gathered under his rank to liberate his occupy province by the Italian forces.


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“God, in his bounty, has struck down my enemies and enlarged my empire and preserved me to this day. I have reigned by the grace of God….Enemies have come who would ruin our country and change our religion. They have passed beyond the sea which God gave us as our frontier….These enemies have advanced, burrowing into the country like moles. With God’s help I will get rid of them.”

Menelik divided his Army under three leaders:-

  1. Emperor Menelik II, The King of Kings of Ethiopia
  2. Empress Taytu Betul, The Wife of Menlik II
  3. Negus Tekle Haymanot Tessemma ,
  4. Ras Welle Betul ;
  5. RasMengesha Atikem ;
  6. Ras Mengesha Yohannes ;
  7. Ras Alula Engida ;
  8. Ras Mikael of Wollo;
  9. Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael;
  10. Fitawrari Gebeyyehu,

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On the night of 29 February and the early morning of 1 March three Italian brigades advanced separately towards Adwa over narrow mountain tracks, while a fourth remained camped.  The Italiano Forces were led by:-

  1. General Oreste Baratieri ;
  2. Brgdaire Matteo Albertone,
  3. Giuseppe Arimondi,
  4. Giuseppe Ellena  and
  5. Vittorio Dabormida.


These invading Italian forces were made up of 18,000 infantry and 56 artillery guns, and with many thousands of   Eritrean militias were prepared to fight against Menelik II on the battle field.

At 6:00 on the 1st of March 1896 the Italian Gen.  Albertone used the Eritrean askari peasant fighters to face their brother Ethiopian as is always the game to make the enemy to kill one another at a place called Kidane Meret. This was the hill where the Ethiopians had managed to set up their mountain out front.  On the hill side though outnumbered by the Eritrean askaris, the Ethiopian fighters were able to hold their position for two hours which they broke the rank of the Italians and able to capture General Albertone’s.  At such heroic fight the Italian and their remaining askaris dispersed leaving the wounded and the dead.  Seeing the capture of the Albertone Gen  Arimondi’s brigade joined the fight at the last minute and start punching the Ethiopians to liberate the captured Italians. The Ethiopians fought courageously  and battled the colonizers three  hours while Menelik himself joined the combat with his  25,000 strong  Shewans people’s army and  broke their back bones once for good. Brigadier Dabormida now made a fatal error as he retreated from Menelik’s push, he was cornered  into a narrow hill where he  was ransacked  by Ras Mikael ‘s Oromo Army . They wiped him  out, his body was never recovered. The last blow came at noon the next day   when Negus Tekle Haymonot led his  Gojjam forces  break the back bone of  the remaining  Italian brigade.  This happened when Negus  was attacked by the last of the invading army which he  destroyed and by one o’clock the battle was finished with victory to the African Army.

The battle was bloody over 8,000 Italians died and 1500 wounded many captured fighting hard to save the pride of European colonizers, but  with no avail. Almost the same amount of Ethiopians perished in this decisive war of history in the African heartland after the war of the Zulu in South Africa  and Mhadist victory against the Britons in Khartoum led by Mahadi.

“In Ethiopia, the military genius of Menelik II was in the best tradition of Piankhi, the great ruler of ancient Egypt and Nubia or ancient Ethiopia, who drove out the Italians in 1896 and maintained the liberties of that ancient free empire of Black men.” Huggins and Jackson analyzed the victory not only in terms of its significance to the postcolonial African world, but also in terms of its linkage to the tradition of ancient African glories and victories.  An Introduction to African Civilizations, Huggins and Jackson write



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