Ethiopian Dams a moment of Truth. A regime which is not learning from its mistakes…

The Government of Ethiopia is preparing to repeat it mistakes by reinvesting in it’s fallen and highly contested dams.
The dictatorial regime to justify its megalomaniac project started cutting light all over Ethiopia randomly without warning. This to put pressure on the population and to assure the election outcome to its ruling party. Those who are not a member of the party are in continual blackout.
Another 20 million Eros on the same fallen project of a collapsed dump tunnel is been invested while 20 millions are starving. Surely the Gibe II dam and the rest on the river Omo will bust again due to the continual shift and opening of the Ethiopian rift valley. This is starting from Afar depression and permanent volcanic eruption down to lake Turkana. A regime rather than feeding its people by developing alterative and nature friendly energy supplies, rather prefers in spending billions on a sinking sand dam projects. Unfortunately all the dictatorial regimes manifestoes the same characteristics and their love megalomaniac big projects on the back of their dying population. 

Ethiopia map of dam surroundings at present







————————-Datei:Tectonic plates boundaries detailed-en.svg 








The Woyane Government position on the fallen dams

Gibe II Glitch

A collapse in a tunnel has forced the closure of Ethiopia’s largest hydropower plant, Gilgel Gibe II, one week after it was inaugurated. Engineers have estimated that the repairs will take two months and cost 356 million birr. As a result, large factories have been asked to halve their power consumption. 

A week after it was officially inaugurated, the largest hydropower station in Ethiopia’s history, Gilgel Gibe II (GG II) has suffered a collapse of a section of a tunnel. Minister of Mines and Energy Alemayehu Tegenu said that the plant halted operations on Sunday, January 24 after signs of a drop in pressure were observed. He said that the problem occurred some nine kilometers from the outlet of the tunnel and that 15 meters has collapsed. 

Semegnew Bekele (Eng), GG II Project Manager, said the problem is easy to solve and could be fixed in a very short time. The reconstruction work is expected to cost a maximum of 18 million Euros, (365 million birr) and take two months, according to engineers’ estimates. Reinforcement work is also expected to be done to strengthen other sections of the tunnel. Engineers added that they think the costs of the repair work will be covered by the contractor, as it is liable for repair work for one year after completion of the project. The contractor for GG II was Italian firm, Salini Costruttori, which also constructed Gilgel Gibe I. Factories that consume large amounts of electric power have been ordered by the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCo) to reduce their consumption by 50 percent as a result of the incident. 

Following Tekeze Hydropower Plant’s launch, the opening of GG II was the second of three major hydropower projects that were expected to come online this fiscal year. GG II, which was constructed 250km south west of Addis Ababa for over 5.2 billion birr, can generate 420 megawatts of electricity from its four turbines. It was predicted that it was going to increase electric power supply by 38 percent. The Italian Government and the European Investment Bank paid for 52 percent of the total cost, while the Ethiopian Government covered the balance. GG II was supposed to solve the country’s power shortage and was also expected to export power to neighboring countries. 

Mihiret Debebe, CEO of EEPCo, said that the corporation is doing its best to solve the power shortage and is going to rapidly complete Beles Hydropower Project, which is expected to generate 460 mw when it starts operation in the next couple of weeks. GG II, an extension of the Gilgel Gibe I (GG I) hydropower project, does not have a dam. Instead, it uses the water discharged by the GG I, channeled through a 26 km tunnel under Fofa mountain, to Omo River Valley where it takes advantage of a 1.2 km drop to generate 420 mw. Construction of GG II was launched in 2005.Also underway is the Gibe III hydropower project, which, when operational, will double the country’s power capacity by generating 1,870 mw. The project launched in March 2008 is expected to cost around 20 billion birr. The same Italian firm has so far completed about 35 percent of the civil works of the project at a slow pace due to financing problems. 



Sudan Tribune

Environment group calls to suspend funding of Ethiopia’s dam

(ADDIS ABABA) — An international environmental group urged the African Development Bank (AfDB) to reconsider their commitment to fund the ongoing construction of a dam in southwest Ethiopia saying it would affect the ecosystems and livelihoods in the region. 

The Gibe III Dam, located 190 miles (300 km) southwest of Addis Ababa, on the Omo River, is Ethiopia’s largest investment project. The project costs $1.7 billion. 

In order to diversify and develop its economy, the government of Ethiopia has initiated an aggressive plan to develop hydropower for export, long seen as one of the country’s few exploitable resources. Foreign aid covers 90% of Ethiopia’s national budget. 

International Rivers urged the AfDB to not fund the construction of Gibe III saying it will reduce food security of up to half a million poor farmers, herders and fishers in southwest Ethiopia and northern Kenya. 

“An oasis of biodiversity in a harsh desert, Lake Turkana supports 300,000 people and rich animal life. Hundreds of thousands of fishing families and pastoralists will be affected if the lake’s fragile ecosystem is stressed to the brink of collapse.” 

“The project would spread war and famine in a region that is already affected by climate change,” further said International Rivers. 

Next week from May 13-14 the AfDB directors will discuss during a meeting to be held in Dakar, Senegal, the funding of Gibe III which is under construction since 2006. The African bank agreed to contribute to finance the project but it has to determine how much it would pay. 

European Investment Bank is considering financing Gibe III, up to € 250 million, while Italy is mulling financing Gibe III with up to € 250 million. 

In complaints filled to the AfDB, Kenyan NGOs and International Rivers assert that the project violates five binding AfDB policies. 

Construction of the Gibe 3 Project began in July 2006 with flagrant violations of Ethiopia’s laws on environmental protection and procurement, said the environment advocacy group. 

It also alleged that the contract was awarded without competitive bidding to Italian construction giant Salini, raising serious questions about the project’s integrity. 



The nongovernmental group said the AfDB should suspend its plans to fund this project until a thorough review and consultations with all affected peoples have taken place. 

“The AfDB should in the meantime help Ethiopia drought-proof its energy sector, diversify its energy mix, and tap its abundant renewable energy resources.” 




The northern Keyna have already started the climatic water wars which has embraced all of the Omotic reverian populations.In Ethiopia the sacristy of natural resources due to the drying river basins and lakes has ignited tribal wars aggravated by the damming of rivers. 



Kenya Should Stop Ethiopia From Building Dam

Date: Sat 23rd January 2010

Mars Group Kenya – Multimedia 

Water is life. And for this truism, many lives have been lost. Amid the devastating effects of climate change, it seems the people who depend on Lake Turkana are about to lose their source of livelihood – not due to nature but greed and intransigence. Despite numerous valid protestations about the environmental, political, economic and social consequences of Ethiopia’s decision to build a dam, Gibe III, on River Omo, the country seems intent on going ahead with the project.Reports suggest the 240m high dam with a reservoir stretching 151km is at an advanced stage. At a time when there are constant conflicts over water resources, it is unimaginable that our leaders have been lame ducks in the face of Ethiopia’s continued threat to the existence of Lake Turkana. Reports indicate that Lake Turkana’s death is nigh if the project continues as the lake gets 80 per cent of its water from River Omo. 

Death of a lakeNow, the fact that the river is the lifeline for people living around the lake is not new. And neither is the fact that without it, the people of Turkana and surrounding areas will be severely affected. This is serious given the number of conflicts over water resources. An environment impact report warns that “cutting off the main source of livelihood can only heighten the intense conflicts emanating from inadequate supply of resources for their mutual survival”. 

This will be compounded by, the report further contends, “total destruction of the environment and elimination of forest, woodland and total mutilation of biodiversity and all riverine economic activities”. Given such serious assessment, it does not make sense for Ethiopia to continue building the dam. The tragedy is that Kenya seems to have endorsed the project ostensibly because it will import 500 mega watts of power from Ethiopia once the dam is working. 

This thinking defeats logic because millions of Kenyans’ lives will be irreparably damaged. This realisation alone ought to tell the Government to take immediate steps to stop the construction of the dam. The Government has the obligation to protect the rights and interests of Kenya. 

A regime caught in its lies 

In Ethiopia damming is just a means to snatch cash on the pretext of national development . The years 2010 is a moment of truth that the dream has become an illusion and a game to robe money from international investors. 

  • Years ago the great lie read this article of 2007 non has come true

Ethiopia plans to provide all its citizens, 3 neighboring countries with electricity, says official 

The Associated Press
Friday, February 9, 2007

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia 

Ethiopia has an ambitious multibillion-dollar (-euro) plan to provide all its citizens with electricity within eight years, as well as to supply some power to three neighboring countries, a top manager of the state-owned electricity company said Friday. 

Ethiopia can do this because it has a lot of potential to generate hydroelectric power, said Mihret Debebe, general manager of the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation. 

The country is the source of a branch of the Nile River called the Blue Nile, which is believed to have huge power-generating potential. The Blue Nile merges with the White Nile in Sudan to flow into Egypt as the Nile River. 

By 2010, Ethiopia will generate more than 4,000 megawatts, enabling the country to provide 50 percent of its 77 million people with electricity, Mihret told The Associated Press. 

At present only 20 percent of Ethiopians get electricity and the country generates about 800 megawatts of power, he said. 

“The costs of meeting the target to provide electricity to the entire country will be more than 100 billion birr (US$11.7 billion; €9 billion),” Sendeku Araya, spokesman of the corporation told the AP. “The costs will be covered by the Ethiopian government and the (Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation), through foreign loans agreed upon by various international donors.” 

He said that the government was in discussions with China, the European Union, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, among other donors. 

Sendeku said that he did not have figures on Ethiopia’s power generation potential or how much needs to be produced to supply the whole country. 

Next year, experts are expected to complete their projections of what Ethiopia’s power generation potential is and exactly how much is needed to power up the entire country, said Sendeku. 

Five new dams are being built and the country plans to expand existing geothermal, wind and gas-turbine power generation projects, Mihret said. 

Ethiopia’s ambitions are not confined to its borders, he said. 

“We already have plans in place to begin supplying power, hopefully, to Sudan and Djibouti by 2009, and Kenya by 2010,” Mihret said. He did not say how much power Ethiopia will supply those countries. 


TYPES OF PLATE MOVEMENT: Divergence, Convergence, and Lateral Slipping
At the boundaries of the plates, various deformations occur as the plates interact; they separate from one another (seafloor spreading), collide (forming mountain ranges), slip past one another (subduction zones, in which plates undergo destruction and remelting), and slip laterally. 

Divergent Plate Movement: Seafloor Spreading
Seafloor spreading is the movement of two oceanic plates away from each other (at a divergent plate boundary), which results in the formation of new oceanic crust (from magma that comes from within the Earth’s mantle) along a a mid-ocean ridge. Where the oceanic plates are moving away from each other is called a zone of divergence. Ocean floor spreading was first suggested by Harry Hess and Robert Dietz in the 1960’s. 



Somalia : “Melese Zenawie’ Proxy Warrior of Mogadishu “. Piracy and Extremism prolongs his life in power

Armed militants from Somalia’s Hizbul Islam rebel group take position as they guard a roadblock in southern Mogadishu. Violence in Somalia has killed at least 21,000 people in the failed Horn of Africa nation since the start of 2007 and driven another 1.5 million from their homes.” Photo/REUTERS





Ethiopia a regime that sales its Kids …


Christian International Adoption Agency Buys children in Ethiopia


“Orphan Doctor” Helps World’s Children


Videotapes showing poor orphans from third world countries melt the hearts of prospective parents every day in this country.

Three children, sisters from Ethiopia are shown in a video – ages, you are told, 7, 4 and 6. Their mother is dead, their father dying of AIDS. A life of prostitution is all but assured – if not adopted – saved – by a loving American family.

It was just such a pitch that spoke to Katie and Calvin Bradshaw, reports CBS News chief investigative correspondent Armen Keteyian. They adopted all three girls through a U.S. agency, Christian World Adoption.

“Aside from the gender of the children, everything else proved to be a complete lie,” said Katie.

In truth, the three sisters, Journee, Maree and Meya – were actually much older: 13, 6 and 11.

While their mother was dead, their father was healthy and very much alive. He was living, by local standards, a middle-class life – an extended family able to take care of the girls as middle sister Meya showed us first hand.

“My godmothers, my aunt, those are my mom’s friends, my uncles, my dad, my dad’s friends, that’s my brother,” she said.

In the last year adoptions from Ethiopia to the U.S. have skyrocketed – growing faster than any other country in the world. They have risen from 731 in 2006 to more than 2,200 last year. That’s nearly six children per day.

Now a CBS News investigation has discovered that growth has turned Ethiopia into fertile ground for child trafficking – a country in which some American agencies and their staff engage in highly questionable conduct.

dinsdag 16 februari 2010 12:47 door Ethiopian Times


Watch CBS News Videos Online


South Carolina adoption agency investigated for purchasing children

Tagged with: adoption christian CWA ethiopia world

The Christian World Association, with a base in Charleston, South Carolina, is currently involved in litigation over two Ethiopian sisters. It has been reported that their father sold the siblings to CWA. However, the two sisters said they believed they were coming to the United States for an education, not to have a new family.

The CWA specializes in adoptions from Ethiopia, Russia, Ukraine, China, and Bulgaria and has been doing so since 1991.

However, the CWA has posted a response on their website that suggests original reports by CBS news were intentionally sensationalized and left out important facts that proved CWA had done nothing wrong. Below is the CWS response:

It was with great disappointment that CWA was made aware of the various criticisms expressed by the Bradshaws to CBS news. In an effort to address each of these allegations, CWA agreed to an in-depth interview with CBS reporter Armen Keteyian. During the course of this interview, lasting well over an hour, CBS was provided facts and documents which discredit the allegations made against CWA. Instead of allowing its viewers to consider the position of both parties, CBS chose to exclude every piece of information provided by CWA during its lengthy interview.

Sadly, the appearance is that CBS is more interested in the sensational than the factual.

The truth is that CWA does not and has never given compensation of any kind to influence a parent to surrender a child for adoption. CBS was made aware that CWA workers had no contact with the parent in this video who allegedly “sold” his daughters. And, by virtue of the process in Ethiopia, CWA seldom has any contact whatsoever with relinquishing parents. An accurate understanding of the adoption process (as was provided CBS) bears this out:

In Ethiopia, a relinquishing caregiver who seeks to have a child declared an “orphan” and available for adoption initiates the process by appearing before a local court with three witnesses. These four individuals must swear to the court that the child either has no parents or that the child’s surviving parent does not have the financial ability to care for the child. Should the local court make a finding of need based on the testimony of these four individuals, an investigation is triggered by Ethiopia’s social services department called “Ministry of Women’s Affairs” (MOWA). MOWA is then responsible to conduct its independent investigation as to the need of the child and render its findings, together with those of the local court, to a higher court for yet a third review into the need of the child.

This entire process is undertaken by the Ethiopian government, without any involvement by international adoption agencies. Most often, the entire process is completed before international adoption agencies like CWA are even made aware of the child. Finally, before a child can immigrate to the United States, the entire adoption, including the “orphan” status of each child is investigated by the United States government through the U.S. Consular’s office prior to a child’s visa being issued.

While paying a relinquishing caregiver for an adoptive child would be deplorable in any context, as it relates to Ethiopia the concept even violates common sense. This desperate country has an estimated 6,000,000 orphans of whom only .03% per year will be adopted into the United States. This means that for every child chosen for adoption there is a pool of approximately 3,000 legitimate candidates from whom to choose. There is never a justification for paying a parent to surrender a child, but in Ethiopia there is also no motive to do so. The sad fact is there is no lack of children in Ethiopia needing homes, and no motive to “buy” them. This is particularly true for children who are not infants or those in sibling groups, like the ones in the CBS interview. It is hard to imagine any adoption agency being willing to pay for a child and risk criminal conviction when Ethiopia has an enormous number who are legitimately available.

CBS chose to withhold all of this information from its viewers in exchange for the more fantastic notion that these children were simply “bought” from their father and offered to an American family for adoption. The CBS position is absurd and is a sad and revealing commentary on the reliability of CBS reporting.

CWA does not misrepresent the ages of adoptive children. As was explained to CBS, adoption agencies do not make age determinations. The age of a child is determined by the Ethiopian government during the governmental process of investigating the orphan status of the child. The age determined by the government is then documented by the government and made a part of the child’s adoptive record to be provided to adoption agencies. Adoption agencies are not given the liberty to change the determination made by the government.

CBS was also made aware of the fact that determining the accurate age of children adopted from Ethiopia presents unusual challenges. Many of these children have no birth record from which ages may be calculated; for others, the only record upon which the Ethiopian government has to relay is the oral testimony of a relinquishing caregiver. CWA is deliberate in its adoption materials to repeatedly advise parents to be cautious concerning the government’s represented ages of prospective children. CBS was provided copies of these documents and an article CWA requires adoptive parents to review and sign authored by a prominent orphan doctor discussing the difficulties in assigning an accurate age to children from Ethiopia. Finally, in order to assist parents in making their own determinations as to age, CWA provides pictures and videos of prospective children so parents are given the same graphic “evidence” of a child’s age as is presented to CWA.

When CWA suspects a wide age variation in the reported versus actual age of a child, CWA caseworkers communicate an additional warning to parents. This communication becomes part of the adoptive record. Additionally, because of the nature of the Ethiopian adoption process, further information regarding a child’s age may be forthcoming immediately prior to a child’s visa being issued; when this occurs, this information is also documented in the adoptive record. CBS is aware that the Bradshaws chose not to cooperate in allowing CWA to give CBS documents from the adoptive record regarding the children’s ages.

The mission of CWA is to see orphan children and capable families come together to form permanent, mutually-rewarding family bonds. CWA is not a “business.” Revenue generated from adoptions goes to support the services as well as ongoing efforts to place children in families and to feed, clothe, house, and educate those who can never be placed.

CWA does not expect that every individual hearing the accusations will find no fault with CWA. All CWA would ask is for an opportunity to be heard and for open minds to consider all the facts before reaching a conclusion.


Adopting Foreign Children is a Cruel Joke

Aster C. Lilly

Chicago, IL

Celebrities who adopt foreign children assume a few things about themselves. First, it’s a huge ego trip. Adoption is like one big Nietzsche-style charity.

Adopting a child provides these feelings for a celebrity: superiority, willfulness, godliness, and cultural imperialism.

Although this individual act may be noble, and indeed, children are the “future”, the underlying problems within the society have not been solved by that act of charity.

Adopting a baby does not create infrastructure in a country. Adopting a baby does not discourage the spread of AIDS. Adopting a baby does not provide clean drinking water for a village.

Adopting a baby saves one life; choosing that child is pretending to play God, even though it was probably done for sympathetic reasons.

And even though that adoption was meant to be an act of goodness, the native culture of the adopted child may have been caused serious harm by that act. Adoption of foreign children could be considered a form of international humiliation. Call it crass cultural imperialism. Imagine if a celebrity from another country came to America and adopted one of our children. What would our response be? I imagine people would find it repulsive and strange.

After a foreign child has been adopted, the celebrity can sit back and say “What a benefit I have made to the world!” This attitude contains a self-important subtext. As far as the actual benefits to the “world” that a celebrity has made, most of the time, they have simply acted in a few decent movies or are a musician.

Brad Pitt was in Thelma and Louise; Angelina Jolie was in Tomb raider. Madonna sang “Ray of Light”. Apparently if you earn enough money, you deserve to have a say in international affairs, regardless of credentials.

Another effect of celebrities is the lessening of the tragic perception of the nations where they adopt.

We will recognize Cambodia as the land of adopted babies; not the land of children-warlords, the killing fields, and cold-war espionage.

Dalai Lama- The Tibetan Tragic “Ocean of Wisdom” visit Obama

Tibetan History begins with the incursions of Tibetan K’iang in Central China when Buddha was living in India, Confucius and Lao-tseu in China (5th century B.C.). The History of Tibet can be divided in two parts = the first one with the establishment and the end of the Tibetan Kingdoms, the second with the establishment and the end of the Dalai-Lama Theocracy. During both periods civil and religious problems are mixed and cannot be made distinct. In the seventh century, the Tibetan King Sron-tsan-gampo was very powerful and a menace to the Chinese Empire. During this period, many famous buildings and holy places were built. Later when the Tibetan leadership in Central Asia was weaker, the Mongol Khan considered Tibet as a sacred country and secured it. This protection continued when Mongol Dynasty reigned over China. The Chinese Ming Emperors also acknowledged the leadership of Tibetan Buddhism in all of China. Tibet lived peacefully up to the recent period. The first European travellers to visit Tibet were very impressed by the country and its inhabitants. They reported that Tibet was considered as a mythic country. At the end of the second World War, the Mao-Tse-tung Army defeated Chang-Kai-chek and invaded peacefull Tibet. After installation of a pro-Chinese Administration, the first decisions brought a severe famine, suppressed civil rights and imposed the Chinese language. In March 1959, Lhassa population obliged the Dalai-Lama to escape in India, against his will… In the 1970’s, during the Cultural Revolution the Red Guards destroyed nearly 2000 official buildings and holy places, and burnt nearly all the Tibetan libraries and books to get rid of the Tibetan civilization and language.
For the last 4 years a strong repression has occured in Monasteries, in spite of the presence of Europeans journalists and tourists. The actual facts don’t seem sufficiently interesting for the Western media………….




Tibet officially became part of the People’s Republic of China in the 1950s.Some people say that it has been a part of China from at least 18th century in the Qing Dynasty.
Tibetan culture also influences other regions nearby, such as Nepal, Bhutan, parts of eastern Kashmir and some regions in India, most notably Sikkim, Uttaranchal and Tawang . China claims part of the Indian province of Arunachal Pradesh as South Tibet.









Chinese Position !!!

Truth about dialogue with Dalai Lama
2010-02-10 09:06:00 | by: | From: People’s Daily
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China’s State Council Information Office held a news conference on Feb. 2, inviting Zhu Weiqun and Si Ta, executive vice-ministers of the United Front Work Department of the CPC Central Committee, and Nyima Tsering, vice-chairman of the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region, to introduce the recent talks with private representatives of the Dalai Lama and answer questions.
Zhu said that he hoped the Dalai Lama would change his stance and make the right choices in the remaining years of his life.
Zhu Weiqun, executive vice minister of the United Front Work Department of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee, gives a briefing on the meeting between the Central Government representatives and private envoys of the Dalai Lama, at a press conference held by the State Council Information Office, Feb. 2, 2010, photo from CTIC.
On the same day, the While House said that U.S. President Barack Obama insisted on meeting with the Dalai Lama during the latter’s visit, despite China’s opposition.
During this period, the Dalai Lama sent his private representatives to meet with the Chinese government while actively seeking the opportunity to meet with the U.S. president as well, asserting his political ambitions on the China-U.S. relationship. On the one side, the Chinese government has shown its consistent patience and sincerity in the 9 talks that central departments had held with the Dalai Lama’s private representatives. They did not close the door even after the Dalai Lama’s side publicly announced the termination of the talks with the Chinese government at a special meeting on Tibet’s future in November 2008, but rather, has been patient to wait for their revision of stance.
On the other side, the Dalai Lama’s side has always been double-faced. For instance, Lodi Gyari, one of Dalai’s representatives, put forth a “Memorandum on Genuine Autonomy for the Tibetan People” during a recent talk, deliberately using obscure words and words from both China’s Constitution and the Law on Regional Autonomy for China’s Minority Nationalities to defend their propositions such as “Greater Tibet” and “high degree of autonomy.”

The essence of that stance is still to seek the semi-independence or independence in a disguised way.
Thirdly, major differences between the Dalai Lama and the Chinese government still exist, which is especially true in terms of the “4 no” principles –The national interests must not be violated, the principles of the Constitution must not be infringed, the national dignity must not be damaged and the universal desires of various ethnic groups of the people must not be defied.
That being the case, why does the Dalai Lama want contact and dialogue with the Chinese government? He actually does not want to improve relations with the Central Government, or make self-reflections on his words and deeds on the basis of respecting history, or face reality and conform to the times to make a fundamental correction on his own political views. But rather, he has taken a delay-and-exhaustion strategy to maintain him “chess piece” position in containing China in international relations. Actually, in the context of Taiwan and Tibet correlating China’s core interest, the U.S.’ tentative political strategy becomes all too clear.
Ironically, it is in this moment that the Dalai Lama has chosen to “meet” with Obama to cooperate with the U.S. strategy.
China-U.S. relations have stepped into the “Dalai Round,” which clearly shows China’s Central Government’s sincerity and integrity on the Dalai Lama Issue. Actually, the fact is quite simple. The Dalai Lama always pretends to be a religious, learned and merciful Buddhist leader who has experienced a lot of hardships but has strong will. Previously, he even publicly claimed again and again that there was no doubt that he was a “son of India.” But in fact, what he did had far exceeded the range of pure “religious issues.”
Our patience and sincerity have become bargaining chips for him to continue his tricks in international communities, and has allowed him to create a false impression: as long as he can maintain contact with the Central Government, he will always be able to possess his “magic ability” for hurting China.
Therefore, the Dalai Lama has become much crazier and more insane. The collusion between the Dalai Lama and the U.S. government during the “Dalai Round” was nothing but another futile effort. For the Dalai Lama, it also exposed once again his plot of splitting the motherland and his true intention of selling the interests of China.
However, although the Dalai Lama has played many tricks, he still forgets one thing that – Whether he wants “Tibet independence” or “independence in disguise,” whether he uses violent methods or “non-violent” methods, whether he wants to internationalize the “Tibet issue” or to beat drums for the international anti-China forces, whether he makes use of the Central Government’s morality or sells out our patience and sincerity, Dalai’s effort is doomed and he will never succeed.
The role the Dalai Lama plays in the international community not only disappoints the Chinese, but also will bore people worldwide. The “political market” gained at the expense of ethnic groups and the nation will become more and more lonely and dangerous. Luckily, the current condition in Tibet gives the lie to the Dalai Lama’s lack of imagination, and China and the world will learn the history and future of Tibet in a more realistic and objective way.
Just like what Zhu had said, we wish the Dalai Lama who is drifting away from his country can find his way back while he is still alive.


Legend tells us that Tibetan history starts with a monkey and a Raksasi, a female ogre, when the monkey was sent by Avalokiteshvara (Chenrezi) for the religious training on this high plateau. The Raksasi persuade the monkey to marry her by threatening to kill thousands of people. Having the permission of Avalokiteshvara, they married and had five offspring who are believed to be the ancestors of the Tibetan people. This legend is well known and depicted in ancient books and murals. Even the name of Tsedang, the capital city of Shannan Region, means ‘the place where the monkey plays’.

However, archeological and geological discoveries lead ethnologists to believe that Tibetans are descendants of aboriginal and nomadic Qiang tribes. According to archeology, Tibetan history can be traced back 4,000 years. At that time, life was simple, with stone implements being used. Historical records show that not until the 7th century could Tibetans be recognized as a race of people. The rising Yarlung Dynasty (Tubo Kingdom) unified Tibet and became an aggressive power. The first palace in Tibet, Yumbu Lakang was built for the first king of Tibet, Nyatri Tsenpo. His offspring, Songtsen Gampo, the most powerful and intelligent king of Tubo, conquered other tribes and founded the first dynasty of Tibet, Yarlung Dynasty (Tubo Kindom). Songtsen Gampo also made great contributions to Tibetan culture, economy, technology, religion, etc. by communicating with the outside world. The outstanding king of the Tubo Kingdom married two princesses of Nepal and of the Tang (618-907). The Princesses brought with them advanced technology, exotic culture, tea, silk and most important of all, peace and Buddhism.

Songtsen Gampo embraced the religion and the first transmission of Buddhism came to the snowy land. The king and the princesses built Jokhang Temple and Ramoche Temple to enshrine the holy statues of Sakyamuni. They also ordered the construction of the grand Potala Palace. The king’s successors followed the religion too and in 779 King Trisong Detsen set up Samye Monastery, the first Buddhist temple in Tibet. The great religious teacher, Padmasambhava was invited to Tibet and Buddhism was recognized as the state religion. The Buddhist influence spread as the expansion of the Tibetan empire continued. The indigenous Bon were not satisfied with the popularity that Buddhism held with the royal family. In 836, King Ralpachen was assassinated and Lang Darma , who believed in Bon and objected to Buddhism, was installed as King. Severe persecution against Buddhists ended the first Buddhism transmission. Lang Darma, in 842, was assassinated by a Buddhist and the collapse of the Yarlong Dynasty followed causing the decentralization of Tibet and a struggle for power for the next 400 years.

In 1042, Atisa was invited to Tibet to launch the second Buddhism transmission and Buddhism gradually revived. Gradually, Tibetan Buddhism divided itself into many sects and sub-sects, which rigorously debated with each other, vying for dominance by seeking patrons among the warring principalities. In the twelfth century, the Mongol Empire rose to power and expanded aggressively. Sakyapa, or the Stripe sect, was quite powerful among all the sects at that time. The Mongol Emperor negotiated with the abbot of Sakyapa and assisted him to become the ruler of Tibet. From then on, Tibet became an appendage of the Mongol Empire. Later, the Mongol Empire conquered the Song Dynasty (960-1279) and founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). In 1254, Kublai Khan granted supreme authority over Tibet to the leader of Sakyapa. Sakya Pandit was appointed to become the imperial preceptor and a high official in his court. Tibet was thus incorporated as one of the 13 provinces of China. At the end of the Yuan Dynasty, Sakyapa declined and was replaced by the Kagyu order, whose patron offered tribute to the imperial court and was conferred with titles and administrative authority. After the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) was established, Tibetan high lamas were summoned to the imperial court to receive titles and appointments.

In 1751, Mongol Alton Khan gave his submission to the Ming Dynasty and the Ming Dynasty titled the local leaders accordingly. In 1641, under the patronage of Qosot Gushri Khan, Gandan Podrang Dynasty took the reign and Gelugpa, the order of Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama, stepped into political arena. The Third Dalai Lama paid tribute to the central government and was titled again by the Ming Dynasty. Soon afterwards the Manchurian Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) came to power in China. In 1652, the Fifth Dalai Lama was summoned to Beijing, and in 1653 he was re-conferred with the title Dalai Lama and made religious leader of Tibetan Buddhism by Emperor Shunzhi. In 1654, the Fifth Dalai Lama had the Potala Palace renovated making it the base for Dalai Lamas to live, work and practice Buddhism. In 1682, the Fifth Dalai Lama passed away and dispute arose around the identification of the Sixth Dalai Lama. In 1709, Emperor Kangxi of Qing Dynasty sent his imperial envoy to assist the local magistrate Lhabzang Khan, grandson of Gushri Khan to confirm the Sixth Dalai Lama.

The Panchen Lama was conferred with the title Panchen Erdeni in 1713 by Qing Dynasty. Dzungar Mongols attacked Tibet in 1717, killing Lhabzang Khan, sacking monasteries and deposing the sixth Dalai Lama. The Qing troops dispatched to Tibet escorted the newly installed Seventh Dalai Lama and drove Dzungar out of Tibet. Internal unrest rose again causing the Emperor to send his imperial troops to quench the turmoil and to put in place a plan to reform the local administration. After a series of reforms, the local administrative authority fell to the Dalai Lama and the imperial representative official in Tibet, who were equal in status.

A Lot Drawing Process was introduced to avoid dispute over the identification of high lamas and their installation has been approved by the central government since 1793. In 1904, a British force invaded Lhasa and remained for 50 days. The Thirteenth Dalai Lama fled to Qinghai. In 1911, the Qing Dynasty collapsed and the Republic of China was founded. The Thirteenth Dalai Lama’s title, which was withdrawn by the Qing Dynasty in 1910, was restored by the Republic of China in 1912. Later, the Thirteenth Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa. In 1923, a dispute occurred between the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and the Ninth Panchen Lama. The Panchen Lama fled to Qinghai and died there in 1937. The Chinese government approved the identification of the reincarnations of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama and the Tenth Panchen Lama in 1940 and 1949 respectively.

In 1965, the Tibet Autonomous Region was founded. After opening to tourism from abroad, increasing numbers of visitors from all over the world have visited this splendid pure land.

Tibet Time Line

1063BC: Bon religion established
127BC: Tibetan kingdom of Nyatri Tsenpo
600AD: Buddhist texts translated into Tibetan
602: Tibet is unified under Namri Songtsen
629: Tibet expands under Songtsen Gampo
630: Songzen Gampo introduces Buddhism to Bhutan
637: Songtsen Gampo builds the first Potala in Lhasa
760: Indian mystics such as Santarakshita and Padmasambhava visit Tibet
763: Tibetan sack of Chinese capital Xian
779: the first Buddhist monastery is founded in Samye by Guru Rinpoche/ Padmasambhava
821: Peace treaty between Tibet and China
842: the Tibetan emperor Langdarma is assassinated and the empire disintegrates
1042: the Indian mystic Atisha visits Tibet (Kadampa teachings)
1073: Sakya monastery and Sakya domination
1080: the Tibetan poet and mystic Milarepa
1247: the Mongols (known as Yuan dynasty in China) become de facto rulers of Tibet but Sakya monks become their tutors
1253: Kublai Khan declares Buddhism the state religion of his empire
1254: Drogon Chogyal Phagpa is appointed ruler of Tibet (first to exert both religious and secular authority over Tibet, or “lama”)
1409: Ganden Monastery founded by Tsongkhapa and Gelugpa domination
1445: Shigatze monastery founded by Gendun Drup (b 1391), later recognized as first dalai lama
1573: The Mongol emperor invites Sonam Gyatso of Tibet to the Mongol capital of Altan Khan and begins conversion of Mongolia to Buddhism, and bestows on Sonam Gyatso the title of “Dalai Lama” (“Ocean of Wisdom”)
1601: The Mongol emperor appoints Yonten Gyatso, a grandson of Altan Khan, as Tibet’s Dalai Lama, causing a civil war in Tibet
1642: Ngawang Lozang Gyatso (fifth dalai lama) assumes both spiritual and temporal authority over Tibet
1648: Potala built in Lhasa
1650: Choskyi Gyaltsen is recognized as first panchen lama (“great scholar”)
1652: Tibet’s dalai lama visits the Manchu emperor Shunzhi in Beijing
1684: Tibet is defeated by Ladaq and Bhutan
1697: The dalai lama Tsangyang Gyatso seizes power in Tibet
1706: A Mongol king Lhazang Khan, an ally of the Chinese emperor, deposes Tsangyang and installs a hand-picked dalai lama, Ngwaang Yeshi Gyatso
1716: Mission by Jesuit priest Ippolito Desideri
1717: Another Mongol king defeats Lhazang Khan and liberates Tibet
1720: The Manchus invade Tibet, turn Tibet into a protectorate and install Kelzang Gyatso as the new dalai lama
1728: The Manchus appoint Pho-lha-nas as the real political leader of Tibet
1750: The Manchus invade Tibet again to quell an uprising and install a council presided by the Dalai Lama
1788: Nepal invades Tibet but the Manchus intervene on Tibet’s side
1792: China enacts rules on how Tibet should elect its government
1793: Nepal is definitely defeated
1841: An Indian kingdom invades Tibet
1856: Peace treaty with Nepal
1904: British troops invade Tibet but soon withdraw
1905: Chinese troops led by Zhao Erfang invade Tibet and destroy many monasteries
1911: After the fall of the Qing dynasty, the Chinese troops in Tibet mutiny and kill Zhao
1913: Tibet proclaims its independence from China, a popular insurrection expels the Chinese troops, and the dalai lama returns to Lhasa
1918: Tibet pushes the Chinese back and reaches the Yiang Tze Kiang
1946: Tibetan representatives attend the Chinese constitutional assembly in Nanjing as observers
1949: China invades eastern Tibet
1951: China annexes the whole of Tibet
1959: Tibetans riot against Chinese occupation (87,000 dead)
1959: the dalai lama escapes from Lhasa to India
1966: During the “cultural revolution” 2,692 Tibetan monasteries are destroyed
1976: China begins a campaign to resettle ethnic Chinese in Tibet
1979: China opens Tibet to foreign tourists
1987: the Chinese government establishes a special school in Beijing to educate the reincarnate Tibetan lamas
1989: The dalai lama is awarded the Nobel Prize for peace
1991: the panchen lama dies, opening a conflict with China over the appointment of the successor
2002: Tenzin Delek Rinpoche and other Tibetan leaders are arrested by the government of mainland China
2006: a railway connection between mainland China and Tibet is inaugurated (the 1,140km Golmud-Lhasa being the world’s highest)
2008: 130 Tibetan protesters are killed and hundreds arrested in Lhasa by the troops of mainland China after Tibetans riot and kill 18 Chinese civilians living in Tibet