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Amharas or Gojjamis

Volcano erupted in Eritrea as expected breaking the Ethiopian Ocean, the mega dams are menaced

 

 

The volcano of the Horn of Africa are set in motion by exploding in Eritrea  for the  making of  the most expected Ethiopian ocean. It set in action as we have foretold in this site in previous articles. Many geophysicist and seismologist  thought  it will take millions of years to split the horn of Africa. But we have explained in serious of articles that it is in the end of  the  millions of  years phase,  and even in our time we will see the opening of the new ocean.

It is very simple to give  a reality description of events but the true prediction we have been making will save thousands of live if the government of the region  start evacuating the population and stop damming the region.

In the evening of June 12 2011, a series of earthquakes struck the Afambo, Eritrea area. The earthquakes were followed by 2 strong 5.7 earthquakes.  This pattern will continue till the final breaking  of the Horn  from the rest of the continent of Africa.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jy8e1mqhgsE&feature=player_detailpage

 

 

 

UPDATE 21:36 UTC : Some more information on the volcanic complex :
Mallahle is the central of three NE-SW-trending stratovolcanoes in the Danakil horst SW of Dubbi volcano, and lies SSW of Nabro volcano.
These two volcanoes, along with Bara Ale and Sork’Ale, form the Bidu volcanic complex. The complex Mallahle stratovolcano is truncated by a steep-walled 6-km-wide caldera. Mallahle is formed of rhyolitic lava flows and pyroclastics. Basaltic lava flows blanket the slopes of the
volcano. Recent obsidian flows are found on the NW flank of Mallahle and older obsidian flows were erupted on the northern caldera floor.
Flank spatter and scoria cones are most numerous on the western side of the volcano. Extensive ignimbrite deposits associated with the collapse of Mallahle and Nabro volcanoes blanket the countryside.

UPDATE 21:28 UTC : These magnitudes can lead to serious damage if the epicenter is below or very near to Afambo (which is very nearby based on the seismological data) . We do not think that there will be injured people as the series started with moderate earthquakes and as people will stay on the streets after so many earthquakes.  The current situation tends to become very dangerous.

UPDATE 21:23 UTC : A Mw5.7 has been also recorded at depth 9km in around the same area. No record of damage has yet been recorded.

UPDATE 21:03 UTC : Lucas Tavares reports in our Facebook page : I was studying about this volcanoes past hours. Maybe the shakes surrounds the Mallahle or Nabro Caldera, there is’nt any known eruptions of these volcanoes! Shakes are becoming stronger!

UPDATE 20:58 UTC : We have still no trace (as expected) of what is really going on. This last 5.4 earthquake can be damaging at this shallow depth when the epicenter is located below a village or town. As we are unsure of the exact epicenter (the error margin may be 10 to 30 km different than reported by the USGS).

UPDATE 20:56 UTC : The earthquakes are continuing with the last one as the strongest so far with a magnitude of 5.4 at a depth of 10 km.

UPDATE 20:33 UTC : We are more and more convinced that one of the nearby volcanoes went into an active status as the distance to the ridge fault is to big to create this kind of earthquakes. Additionally almost all the earthquakes are occurring near the volcano complex on the picture (courtesy Google Earth)

UPDATE 19:37 UTC : This unusual series of moderate earthquakes have also occurred a couple of months ago in the Gulf of Aden. The earthquakes are typical for separating irregular tectonic plates. The series in the Gulf of Adenhad their epicenter in the immediate area of the ridge fault.
Due to the close-by volcanoes, an eruption pattern of the Dubbi volcano is still possible.  The pre-eruption pattern of both the Icelandic and Chilean volcanoes from the last few weeks is also present here. Compared to Iceland and Chile, Eritrea has other concerns than looking to beautiful eruptions. We will follow up these events and will come back to you as soon as we can get more data ?
UPDATE 16:11 UTC : Other agencies are reporting totally different and less dangerous numbers : GFZ: 4.9 @ 43 km and EMSC 4.7 @ 200 km
Moderate shallow earthquake with an epicenter almost below Afambo.
Approx. 15 km from the Dubbi volcano. The peak of the Dubbi volcano is 1625 m. There have been four known eruptions. In 1400 lava was determined to have reached the Red Sea while in 1861 ash was thrown over 250 km from the volcano. Two further events were suspected between 1861 and the 20th century.

During the late afternoon and evening of June 12 2011 a series of moderate earthquake struck at first near Afambo in Eritrea and later 100 km more to the south in Ethiopia. At the moment of writing, we do not know whether these earthquake have a tectonic or a volcanic origin.

Other moderate earthquakes which occurred after the first earthquake which is described in detail

M 4.5      2011/06/12 21:37     Depth 15.0 km      ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 5.7      2011/06/12 21:03     Depth 9.9 km      ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 5.7      2011/06/12 20:32     Depth 10.1 km      ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.8      2011/06/12 19:44     Depth 9.9 km      ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.7      2011/06/12 19:37     Depth 10.1 km      ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.5      2011/06/12 18:01     Depth 10.1 km      ETHIOPIA
M 5.0      2011/06/12 19:21     Depth 10.0 km     ETHIOPIA
M 4.7      2011/06/12 17:47:21       13.538       41.588     Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.8      2011/06/12 17:18:10       13.381       41.764     Depth 9.9 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.3      2011/06/12 16:33:12       13.507       41.722     Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.8      2011/06/12 16:24:44       13.436       41.682     Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.7      2011/06/12 16:12:03       13.397       41.734     Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.5      2011/06/12 16:09:30       13.443       41.696     Depth 2.9 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION

Most important Earthquake Data:
Magnitude : 5.1
UTC Time : Sunday, June 12, 2011 at 15:37:05 UTC
Local time at epicenter : Sunday, June 12, 2011 at 06:37:05 PM at epicenter
Depth (Hypocenter) : 10 km
Geo-location(s) :
Almost below Afambo, Eritrea
128 km (79 miles) WNW of Assab, Eritrea

Source:

http://earthquake-report.com/2011/06/12/unusual-series-of-moderate-…

 

Name Elevation Location Last eruption
meters feet Coordinates
Alid 910 2966 14.88°N 39.92°E Holocene
Asseb 910 2986 12.85°N 42.43°E Holocene
Dubbi 987 5331 13.58°N 41.808°E 1861
Gufa 600 1969 12.55°N 42.53°E Holocene
Jalua 713 2339 15.042°N 39.62°E unknown
Mousa Ali 2028 6654 12.47°N 42.40°E Holocene
Nabro 2218 7277 13.37°N 41.70°E June 13, 2

 

Eruption

Satellite images showed a large eruption occurring shortly after 2200 UTC June 12, close to 1 AM East Africa Time, in the Southern Red Sea Region. The eruption created a large ash cloud near the Eritrea-Ethiopia border region, eventually extending over 1,000 km (620 mi) into neighboring Sudan.[6]

Forecasters predicted that the ash plume may reach Israel.[7]

Geology

The erupting volcano is located within the Afar Triangle, in the larger Danakil Depression that holds many other active volcanoes. However, neither volcano thought potentially responsible for the eruption has seen activity in the past century, with Dubbi last erupting in 1861 and Nabro remaining quiet for thousands of years. No eruption of Nabro occurred in recorded history.

Earthquakes

A series of earthquakes[8], including two at magnitude 5.7[9][10] struck the region in the hours preceeding the eruption. The tremors may be volcanic in origin.[11]

References

  1. ^ News, BNO (June 13, 2011). “VAAC: Eruption underway at Dubbi volcano in Eritrea”. Channel 6 news. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  2. ^ News, BNO (June 13, 2011). “UPDATE 1 — Volcanic eruption in Eritrea sends plume into the air, …. WireUpdate. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  3. ^ VAAC, Toulouse. “Toulouse VAAC – Volcanic Ash Advisories”. Meteo France. Toulouse Volcano Ash Advisory Centre. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  4. ^ Vervaeck, Armand (June 13, 2011). “Eritrea volcano eruption : Ash cloud advisory extending further into Africa”. Earthquake – Report. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  5. ^ Gubin, Anastasia (June 13, 2011). “Africa: Volcán Nabro erupciona lanzando cenizas hasta Sudán” (in Spanish). The Epoch Times. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  6. ^ Duran, Jim; Warren Miller (June 13, 2011). “Dubbi volcanic ash cloud expands westward through Northern Africa”. The Weather Space. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  7. ^ Masa, Israel. “ענן וולקני מהר געש באריתריאה מתקדם לעבר ישראל” (in Hebrew). Masa.co.il. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  8. ^ A, Solomon (June 13, 2011). “Series of moderate earthquakes hit Eritrea – Ethiopia border region”. Ethiopian Journal. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  9. ^ Earthquake, USGS. “Magnitude 5.7 – ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION”. United States Geological Survey. Earthquake Hazards Program. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  10. ^ Earthquake, USGS. “Magnitude 5.7 – ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION”. United States Geological Survey. Earthquake Hazards Program. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  11. ^ Stuff, NZ (June 13, 2011). “Quake swarm hits Ethiopia-Eritrea”. Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 June 2011.

 

Gaddafi Grounded, UN voted for “Non Flay Zone” a new precedent against all dictators…

The New UN Security Council Resolution Set a New precedence to defend the civil society from the any reigning dictators, giving a new role for the UN as a protector of the people,  if the same measure is applicable to all member states  without double standard. The coming revolt against any dictators will use this model to defend themselves against the massacre by their own non elected leaders reigning with force like in Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, Burma  etc… The Resolution authorizes UN members to take “all necessary measures” to protect civilians and civilian centers; Gaddafi tells rebels that armed forces plan on taking over Benghazi; regime vows retaliation for intervention. “Today the Security Council has responded to the Libyan people’s cry for help,” US Ambassador to the UN Susan Rice said. “This Council’s purpose is clear: to protect innocent civilians.” The resolution demands the “immediate establishment of a cease-fire and a complete end to violence and all attacks, and abuses, of civilians.” The resolution stipulates that member states, upon notification to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon and Arab League Secretary General Amr Moussa, can “take all necessary measures…to protect civilians and civilian populated areas, including Benghazi, while excluding a foreign occupation force of any form on any part of Libyan territory.”

The Security Council’s authorization of the use of force also includes the enforcement of a no-fly zone to protect civilians, as well as an enforcement of the arms embargo, banning all international flights by Libyan owned or operated aircraft. The resolution also freezes the assets of certain individuals and five entities including critical state-owned Libyan companies. A newly established Libyan Sanctions Committee is empowered by the resolution to impose sanctions on those who violate the arms embargo, including by providing Gaddafi with mercenaries. “The future of Libya should be decided by the people of Libya,” Rice said in her remarks to the Security Council. “The United States stands with the Libyan people in support of their universal rights.” The resolution was backed strongly by France, the United Kingdom and Lebanon. Ten countries voted in favor of the resolution. Russia, China, Germany, India and Brazil abstained. “Our resolution is aimed to protect Libyan civilians,” Lebanon’s ambassador to the UN Nawaf Salam said. “It will not result in the occupation of even an inch of Libyan territory.” Such resolution send cold breeze to the reigning dictators around the world as a new model to follow to liberate the subjugated nations around the world …?   ThumbnailThumbnailThumbnail

by Vote of 10 in Favour with 5 Abstentions (17 March 2011)

Adwa once unified all the people of African descent, 115 years after divides Ethiopia Prof. Muse Tegegne

The name Adwa divides and unifies Ethiopians today.  115 years ago the 1st of March 1896 it unified not only Ethiopia but the whole people of African descent and the rest of people under colonial subjugation.  Today the name in Ethiopia signifies division dismemberment. It was in 1991 that the son of Adwa Melese Zenawie took over the reign of power in the palace of Menelik II.  This is the same throne where the king of kings the lion of Adwa the pride of all people of African descent seat. Melese the worst dictator Ethiopia has ever seen is set to balkanize Ethiopia, a country Menelik fought and won the greatest battle against the Scramble for Africa.

The battle of Adwa of March first of March, 1896 a great victory and pride for Africans at home Diaspora. The victory assured that Ethiopia successfully resists European colonization.

Italy the late comer to the scramble for Africa in the late 19th century   was allocated to Ethiopia but just needed to take control. The Italians and the rest of the European powers present at the Berlin Conference 1880’s wrongly assumed that Ethiopia was made up of rival tribes fighting one another and thought it would be a quick promenade for their 20,000 strong highly trained invasion forces, they never though these what they call “tribal back word savages “could be united raising a much larger patriotic people’s army to defend their country and even to win an all out war.

 

Map of the Battle of Adowa, between the forces of General Oreste Baratieri, Italian governor of Eritrea and Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia.

[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DzAPoLu4W6TE%26feature%3Drelated img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/zAPoLu4W6TE/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=340 height=260 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false playlist=right /]

The main cause of the Battle being the European colonial ambition it manifested through the deferent treaty the colonial powers used to cheat the Africans. This was highly manifested by Italo Ethiopian Treaty known as the Wechale Treaty.   The colonial manipulation started when Menelik II came to the throne in 1889 the Italians thought that he would surrender sovereignty to them since they had been supplying him with ammunitions. They succeeded to manipulate the king on  May 2, 1889, to make him  sign  the Treaty  of Uccialli in the province of Wello, with which Menelik accorded for the  Italians some land in Tigre to the already concession he has made by letting them to take Eritrea. In this famous once sided treaty, they   tricked Menelik by having two different versions- one in Italian and other in Amharic. The secret of the Italian plan was manifested on   article 17 which read in one in Amharic and other in Italian.   Thus the Italian version read: –
The Emperor consents to use the Italian government for all the business he does with all the other Powers or Governments“.
The Amharic version reads:-
The Emperor has the option to communicate with the help of the Italian government for all matters that he wants with the kings of Europe.”

When Menelik realized that he had been cheated he immediately rejected the treaty and refused all further offers of gifts from the Italians. Turkey, Russia and France stood to the Ethiopian version of the story.  Finally Menelik decided to confront the advancing Italian Army which has already occupied Tigre Provence without his contentment.

As a result in September of 1895, Menelik, King of Kings of Ethiopia mobilized the population of Ethiopia to arms. Over 100,000 Ethiopians gathered under his rank to liberate his occupy province by the Italian forces.

 

[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3Did_3pzPjTd0 img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/id_3pzPjTd0/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=340 height=260 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]

“God, in his bounty, has struck down my enemies and enlarged my empire and preserved me to this day. I have reigned by the grace of God….Enemies have come who would ruin our country and change our religion. They have passed beyond the sea which God gave us as our frontier….These enemies have advanced, burrowing into the country like moles. With God’s help I will get rid of them.”

Menelik divided his Army under three leaders:-

  1. Emperor Menelik II, The King of Kings of Ethiopia
  2. Empress Taytu Betul, The Wife of Menlik II
  3. Negus Tekle Haymanot Tessemma ,
  4. Ras Welle Betul ;
  5. RasMengesha Atikem ;
  6. Ras Mengesha Yohannes ;
  7. Ras Alula Engida ;
  8. Ras Mikael of Wollo;
  9. Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael;
  10. Fitawrari Gebeyyehu,

[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DYdEifBqlcvI img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/YdEifBqlcvI/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=340 height=260 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]

 

On the night of 29 February and the early morning of 1 March three Italian brigades advanced separately towards Adwa over narrow mountain tracks, while a fourth remained camped.  The Italiano Forces were led by:-

  1. General Oreste Baratieri ;
  2. Brgdaire Matteo Albertone,
  3. Giuseppe Arimondi,
  4. Giuseppe Ellena  and
  5. Vittorio Dabormida.

 

These invading Italian forces were made up of 18,000 infantry and 56 artillery guns, and with many thousands of   Eritrean militias were prepared to fight against Menelik II on the battle field.

At 6:00 on the 1st of March 1896 the Italian Gen.  Albertone used the Eritrean askari peasant fighters to face their brother Ethiopian as is always the game to make the enemy to kill one another at a place called Kidane Meret. This was the hill where the Ethiopians had managed to set up their mountain out front.  On the hill side though outnumbered by the Eritrean askaris, the Ethiopian fighters were able to hold their position for two hours which they broke the rank of the Italians and able to capture General Albertone’s.  At such heroic fight the Italian and their remaining askaris dispersed leaving the wounded and the dead.  Seeing the capture of the Albertone Gen  Arimondi’s brigade joined the fight at the last minute and start punching the Ethiopians to liberate the captured Italians. The Ethiopians fought courageously  and battled the colonizers three  hours while Menelik himself joined the combat with his  25,000 strong  Shewans people’s army and  broke their back bones once for good. Brigadier Dabormida now made a fatal error as he retreated from Menelik’s push, he was cornered  into a narrow hill where he  was ransacked  by Ras Mikael ‘s Oromo Army . They wiped him  out, his body was never recovered. The last blow came at noon the next day   when Negus Tekle Haymonot led his  Gojjam forces  break the back bone of  the remaining  Italian brigade.  This happened when Negus  was attacked by the last of the invading army which he  destroyed and by one o’clock the battle was finished with victory to the African Army.

The battle was bloody over 8,000 Italians died and 1500 wounded many captured fighting hard to save the pride of European colonizers, but  with no avail. Almost the same amount of Ethiopians perished in this decisive war of history in the African heartland after the war of the Zulu in South Africa  and Mhadist victory against the Britons in Khartoum led by Mahadi.

“In Ethiopia, the military genius of Menelik II was in the best tradition of Piankhi, the great ruler of ancient Egypt and Nubia or ancient Ethiopia, who drove out the Italians in 1896 and maintained the liberties of that ancient free empire of Black men.” Huggins and Jackson analyzed the victory not only in terms of its significance to the postcolonial African world, but also in terms of its linkage to the tradition of ancient African glories and victories.  An Introduction to African Civilizations, Huggins and Jackson write

 

 

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Ethiopianism is Pan Africanism by ANC

ANC and  Ethiopianism

Time to reflect on our gains and challenges

May 26, 2010 Edition 1

mathole motshekga

This year’s Africa Day celebration in Parliament was themed “Building and Maintaining Peace through Sport in Africa”.

Parliament must be commended for hosting the important event, which took place just a few days before the kick-off of the biggest sporting event on the planet – the World Cup.

Football has for ages served as a uniting sport for people of all races throughout the world.

It has brought hope during extreme difficulty; unity where there was division; courage in the face of systematic injustice; faith in what looked impossible; and victory over subjugation.

Given the continent’s history of conflict and instability, the World Cup must foster peace in Africa, and should be used to usher in a new era of unity and stability in the continent.

We are confident that this prestigious world event will not only leave a lasting legacy for South Africans, but for the continent as a whole. It is for this reason that we have called this event an “African World Cup”.

This year’s marking of this important day on the calendar of the African continent takes place two years after violent attacks targeted mainly at foreign nationals in communities in Gauteng and other parts of the country.

While those attacks were generally xenophobic in nature, they also bore some ethnic undertones as they were also targeted at South Africans.

The ANC and government moved swiftly to decisively quell the attacks and ensured that those behind the attacks were isolated by society and arrested.

As we celebrate this important day, we must as a nation and continent continue to consolidate our social stability and reaffirm our efforts to build a human rights culture. We must, through words and deeds, shun such ugly and repulsive acts both within our borders and elsewhere on the continent.

On Africa Day we must reaffirm our solidarity with the rest of the continent.

We will continue to empower our people to become their own liberators from poverty and underdevelopment.

The establishment of the AU and the adoption of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (Nepad) were confirmation that Africa was focusing on developmental issues to create a better life for all.

While Africa continues to record successes on many fronts, we are also mindful of the many challenges still faced by the continent.

Extreme poverty characterised by the lack of access to basic education, health care and adequate nutrition remain some of the main challenges facing the continent.

The spread of diseases, especially HIV/Aids, continues to threaten Africa’s efforts to attain peace, stability and prosperity.

Parliament must use the Africa Day celebration to acknowledge the continent’s achievements and to take stock of challenges it still faces.

It is important to use that opportunity to reflect on the roots of the renascent ideology and its future.

We must use the celebration to recall that the founders of African nations were spiritual and religious people, guided by the desire to create non-racial, non-sexual, united and democratic and prosperous societies in which the value of all citizens was measured by their shared humanity.

Africa is a great continent that gave birth to human civilisation. It gave birth to sciences and philosophy which shaped modern sciences and society.

More specifically, Africa gave birth to humanity itself – sciences such as geometry, astronomy, astrology and mathematics.

Africa also gave birth to spiritual philosophy of humanism (Ubuntu/Botho) which gave the modern world a universal value system that took root during the European Renaissance, which was inspired by the recovery of Khemeti.

It is therefore not surprising that the founders of modern African nations appealed to the glory of ancient Ethiopia and Africa to propagate their (notion of) equality of Africans to other races.

The African Renaissance is an ideal that came from the people and must be rooted among the people to succeed.

To understand it we must remember that Africa was ravaged by the slave trade and colonialism.

These two inhumane systems virtually killed Africa.

For us to understand and nurture the renascent movement we need to understand its underlying ideas and motives.

African people were not only uprooted from their continent and enslaved abroad, they were denied their humanity and treated as second-class citizens in state and church, including cultural institutions.

Africans remember their disposition to associate with one another for mutual benefit. In the Americas, three types of organisations were established as a result of this disposition.

These organisations were the Prince Hall or African Masonic Lodges, and Ethiopianism that included Sylvester Henry Williams, founder of Pan Africanism, Booker T Washington founder of the Tuksgee Institute and mentor of John Langalibalele Dube – the founding president of the ANC.

The others were WEB du Bois and Marcus Garvey as well Richard Allen, founder of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church.

The father of African Ethiopian Theology, Reverend Mangena Mokone, founded the Ethiopian Church of South Africa, which became the 14th district of the AME.

The AME was established in 1892.

In the same year Dube foretold the rebirth of Africa in his public lecture entitled Upon my Native Land.

In that lecture he foretold a rebirth of a spiritual, humane and prosperous South Africa.

The affiliation of the Ethiopian Church to the AME was concluded in 1896. From that year onwards many African students were offered bursaries to study in African/American colleges, where they were profoundly influenced by Masonic teachings of Prince Hall, Ethiopianism and Pan Africanism.

In 1898 Bishop Turner of the AME Church came to South Africa and ordained many priests in the Ethiopian Church.

The Pan African Movement took shape in 1900 when Williams convened the First Pan African Conference at which Du Bois delivered a keynote address. In that address Du Bois foretold that the colour line would be the greatest problem of the 20th century. The conference also condemned the atrocities perpetrated on African people during the Anglo-Boer war.

After the conference some delegates, including Williams, came to the Cape where they joined Bishop Copplin of the AME Church and other AME officials who propagated both Ethiopianism and Masonic teachings.

Ironically, the Pan Africanists used Masonic teachings and Ethiopian theology to promote universal brotherhood and sisterhood while Cecil John Rhodes and his followers used Masonic teachings to justify the suppression and exploitation of African and other races.

It was this racially discriminatory ideology that inspired the Boers and Britons to conclude the Treaty of Vereeniging which reconciled Boers and Britons on the basis of social exclusion of African people.

  • Mathole Motshekga, Chief Whip of the ANC, speaking at the Africa Day celebration in Parliament yesterday.
  • Ethiopianism Paths of Struggle:- Amharas, Gojjam, Abyssinia

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    Who are Amharas?  What does Gojjam means? Who are the Makers of Ethiopia?

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